Dichēlein

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τὸν κάμηλον οὐχ ὁρᾷς ὅτι ἀκάθαρτον εἶναί φησι ζῷον ὁ νόμος, ἐπειδὴ μηρυκᾶται μέν, οὐ διχηλεῖ δέ (Lev. 11, 4); καίτοι γε πρὸς τὴν ῥητὴν ἐπίσκεψιν οὐκ οἶδ’ ὃν ἔχει λόγον ἡ προσαποδοθεῖσα αἰτία, πρὸς δὲ τὴν δι’ ὑπονοιῶν ἀναγκαιότατον· ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ μηρυκώμενον τὴν προκαταβληθεῖσαν ὑπαναπλέουσαν αὖθις ἐπιλεαίνει τροφήν, οὕτως ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ φιλομαθοῦς, ἐπειδάν τινα δι’ ἀκοῆς δέξηται θεωρήματα, λήθῃ μὲν αὐτὰ οὐ παραδίδωσιν, ἠρεμήσασα δὲ καθ’ ἑαυτὴν ἕκαστα μεθ’ ἡσυχίας τῆς πάσης ἀναπολεῖ καὶ εἰς ἀνάμνησιν τῶν πάντων ἔρχεται. μνήμη δ’ οὐ πᾶσα ἀγαθόν, ἀλλ’ ἡ ἐπὶ μόνοις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς, ἐπεὶ τό γε ἄληστα εἶναι τὰ κακὰ βλαβερώτατον· οὗ ἕνεκα πρὸς τελειότητα χρεία τοῦ διχηλεῖν, ἵνα τοῦ μνημονικοῦ δίχα τμηθέντος ὁ λόγος διὰ στόματος, οὗ πέρατα ἡ φύσις διττὰ εἰργάσατο χείλη, ῥέων διαστείλῃ τό τε ὠφέλιμον καὶ τὸ ἐπιζήμιον μνήμης γένους εἶδος.
(Philo, Peri Geōrgias 131-133)

Do you not see that the Law says that the camel is an unclean animal, because, though it chews the cud, it does not part the hoof (Lev. xi. 4)? And yet, if we fix our eyes on the literal way of regarding the matter, I do not know what principle there is in the reason given for the camel’s uncleanness; but if we look to the way suggested by latent meanings there is a most vital principle. For as the animal that chews the cud renders digestible the food taken in before as it rises again to the surface, so the soul of the keen learner, when it has by listening taken in this and that proposition, does not hand them over to forgetfulness, but in stillness all alone goes over them one by one quite quietly, and so succeeds in recalling them all to memory. Not all memory, however, is a good thing, but that which is brought to bear upon good things only, for it would be a thing most noxious that evil should be unforgettable. That is why, if perfection is to be attained, it is necessary to divide the hoof, in order that, the faculty of memory being cut in twain, language as it flows through the mouth, for which Nature wrought lips as twin boundaries, may separate the beneficial and the injurious forms of memory. (tr. Francis Henry Colson & George Herbert Whitaker)

Depalmaverat

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L. Veratius fuit egregie homo improbus atque immani vecordia. is pro delectamento habebat, os hominis liberi manus suae palma verberare. eum servus sequebatur ferens crumenam plenam assium; ut quemque depalmaverat, numerari statim secundum Duodecim Tabulas quinque et viginti asses iubebat.
(Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticus 20.1.13)

One Lucius Veratius was an exceedingly wicked man and of cruel brutality. He used to amuse himself by striking free men in the face with his open hand. A slave followed him with a purse full of asses; as often as he had buffeted anyone, he ordered twenty-five asses to be counted out at once, according to the provision of the Twelve Tables. (tr. John C. Rolfe)

Paideia

Ἡ παιδεία, κἂν μηδὲν ἕτερον ἀγαθὸν ἔχῃ, τό γε συμφοιτᾶν δι’ αὐτὴν νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἔξω κακίας, οἷς ἂν ᾖ τις αἰδώς· καὶ πολλοὶ σφᾶς αὐτοὺς καὶ ἄλλους.
(Plutarch, fr. 159)

Even if education has no other merits, attending school at least keeps pupils who have any sense of decency away from wrongdoing, whether by day or by night. (tr. James C. McKeown)

Clavus

Coronant et publicos ordines laureis publicae causae, magistratus vero insuper aureis, ut Athenis, ut Romae. Superferuntur etiam illis Etruscae. hoc vocabulum est coronarum quas
gemmis et foliis ex auro quercinis ab Iove insignes ad deducendas tensas cum palmatis togis sumunt. sunt et provinciales aureae, imaginum pro numero capita maiora quaerentes. sed tui ordines et tui magistratus et ipsum curiae nomen ecclesia est Christi. illius es concriptus in libris vitae. illic purpurae tuae sanguis Domini, et clavus latus in cruce ipsius; illic secures, ad caudicem iam arboris positae; illic virgae ex radice Iesse.
(Tertullian, De Corona Militis 13.1-2)

For state reasons, the various orders of the citizens also are crowned with laurel crowns; but the magistrates besides with golden ones, as at Athens, and at Rome. Even to those are preferred the Etruscan. This appellation is given to the crowns which, distinguished by their gems and oak leaves of gold, they put on, with mantles having an embroidery of palm branches, to conduct the chariots containing the images of the gods to the circus. There are also provincial crowns of gold, needing now the larger heads of images instead of those of men. But your orders, and your magistracies, and your very place of meeting, the church, are Christ’s. You belong to Him, for you have been enrolled in the books of life. (Philippians 4:3) There the blood of the Lord serves for your purple robe, and your broad stripe is His own cross; there the axe is already laid to the trunk of the tree (Matthew 3:10); there is the branch out of the root of Jesse (Isaiah 11:1). (tr. Sidney Thelwall)

Aquilarum

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Romanis eam* legionibus Gaius Marius in secundo consulatu suo proprie dicavit. erat et antea prima cum quattuor aliis: lupi, minotauri, equi aprique singulos ordines anteibant; paucis ante annis sola in aciem portari coepta erat, reliqua in castris relinquebantur; Marius in totum ea abdicavit. ex eo notatum non fere legionis umquam hiberna esse castra ubi aquilarum non sit iugum.

* sc. aquilam

(Pliny the Elder, Nat. Hist. 10.16)

The eagle was assigned to the Roman legions as their special badge by Gaius Marius in his second consulship. Even previously it had been their first badge, with four others, wolves, minotaurs, horses and boars going in front of the respective ranks; but a few years before the custom had come in of carrying the eagles alone into action, the rest being left behind in camp. Marius discarded them altogether. Thenceforward it was noticed that there was scarcely ever a legion’s winter camp without a pair of eagles being in the neighbourhood. (tr. Harris Rackham)

Dens

tooth-extractions

In ore quoque quaedam manu curantur. ubi in primis dentes nonnumquam moventur, modo propter radicum inbecillitatem, modo propter gingivarum arescentium vitium. – oportet in utrolibet candens ferramentum gingivis admoveri, ut attingat leviter, non insidat. adustae gingivae melle illinendae et mulso eluendae sunt. ut pura ulcera esse coeperunt, arida medicamenta infrianda sunt ex is, quae reprimunt. si vero dens dolores movet eximique eum, quia medicamenta nihil adiuvant, placuerit, circumradi debet, ut gingivae ab eo resolvantur; tum is concutiendus est. eaque facienda, donec bene moveatur: nam dens haerens cum summo periculo evellitur, ac nonnumquam maxilla loco movetur; idque etiam maiore periculo in superioribus dentibus fit, quia potest tempora oculosve concutere. tum, si fieri potest, manu; si minus, forfice, dens excipiendus est.
(Celsus, De Medicina 7.12.1a-b)

In the mouth too some conditions are treated by surgery. In the first place, teeth sometimes become loose, either from weakness of the roots, or from disease drying up the gums. In either case the cautery should be applied so as to touch the gums lightly without pressure. The gums so cauterized are smeared with honey, and swilled with honey wine. When the ulcerations have begun to clean, dry medicaments, acting as repressants, are dusted on. But if a tooth gives pain and it is decided to extract it because medicaments afford no relief, the tooth should be scraped round in order that the gum may become separated from it; then the tooth is to be shaken. And this is to be done until it is quite moveable: for it is very dangerous to extract a tooth that is tight, and sometimes the jaw is dislocated. With the upper teeth there is even greater danger, for the temples or eyes may be concussed. Then the tooth is to be extracted, by hand, if possible, failing that with the forceps. (tr. Walter George Spencer)