τοῦτον οὖν ἔχει τὸν λόγον ὁ θεὸς ἐν κόσμῳ, συνέχων τὴν τῶν ὅλων ἁρμονίαν τε καὶ σωτηρίαν, πλὴν οὔτε μέσος ὤν, ἔνθα ἡ γῆ τε καὶ ὁ θολερὸς τόπος οὗτος, ἀλλ’ ἄνω καθαρὸς ἐν καθαρῷ χωρῷ βεβηκώς, ὃν ἐτύμως καλοῦμεν οὐρανὸν μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ ὅρον εἶναι εἶναι τὸν ἄνω, Ὄλυμπον δὲ οἷον ὁλολαμπῆ τε καὶ παντὸς ζόφου καὶ ἀτάκτου κινήματος κεχωρισμένον, οἷα γίνεται παρ’ ἡμῖν διὰ χειμῶνος καὶ ἀνέμων βίας, ὥσπερ ἔφη καὶ ὁ ποιητὴς
Οὔλυμπόνδ’, ὅθι φασὶ θεῶν ἕδος ἀσφαλὲς αἰεὶ
ἔμμεναι· οὔτ’ ἀνέμοισι τινάσσεται οὔτε ποτ’ ὄμβρῳ
δεύεται, οὔτε χιὼν ἐπιπίλναται, ἀλλὰ μάλ’ αἴθρη
πέπταται ἀνέφελος, λευκὴ δ’ ἐπιδέδρομεν αἴγλη. [Homer, Od. 6.42-45]
(Pseudo-Aristotle, Peri Kosmou 400a3-14)

And this is the position held in the cosmos by God, who maintains the orderliness and preservation of the whole: except that he is not in the centre – for there lies the earth, this turbulent, troubled place – but high aloft, pure in a pure region, which we rightly call “heaven” (οὐρανός) because it forms the uppermost boundary (ὅρος… ἄνω) or “Olympus” because it shines brightly all over (ὁλολαμπής) and is removed from all darkness and disorderly motion such as occurs among us when there is a storm or a violent wind; as the poet says,
To Olympus, where they say the gods’ dwelling stands
always safe; it is not shaken by winds, nor drenched
by showers of rain, nor does snow come near it; always unclouded
the air spreads out, and a white radiance lies upon it.
(tr. D.J. Furley)


sneezing kid

Διὰ τί πρὸς τὸν ἥλιον βλέψαντες πτάρνυνται μᾶλλον; ἢ διότι κινεῖ θερμαίνων; καθάπερ οὖν πτεροῖς θιγγάνοντες. ἀμφότεροι γὰρ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν· τῇ γὰρ κινήσει θερμαίνοντες ἐκ τοῦ ὑγροῦ θᾶττον πνεῦμα ποιοῦσιν. τούτου δὲ ἡ ἔξοδος πταρμός.
(Pseudo-Aristotle, Problēmata 961b)

Why is one more apt to sneeze after looking at the sun? Is it because the sun heats us and produces a disturbance? So it is the same thing as tickling with feathers. For both produce the same effect; for producing movement by heat they create breath faster from the moisture. The exit of this breath is a sneeze. (tr. Harris Rackham)



Οἷς δὲ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ γλαυκοὶ ἢ λευκοί, δειλοί. ἐφάνη γὰρ τὸ λευκὸν χρῶμα δειλίαν σημαῖνον. οἱ δὲ μὴ γλαυκοὶ ἀλλὰ χαροποὶ εὔψυχοι. ἀναφέρεται ἐπὶ λέοντα καὶ ἀετόν. οἷς δὲ οἰνωποί, μάργοι. ἀναφέρεται ἐπὶ τὰς αἶγας. οἷς δὲ πυρώδεις, ἀναιδεῖς. ἀναφέρεται ἐπὶ τοὺς κύνας. οἱ ὠχρόμματοι ἐντεταραγμένους ἔχοντες τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς δειλοί. ἀναφέρεται ἐπὶ τὸ πάθος, ὅτι οἱ φοβηθέντες ἔνωχροι γίνονται χρώματι οὐχ ὁμαλῷ. οἱ δὲ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς στιλπνοὺς ἔχοντες λάγνοι. ἀναφέρεται ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀλεκτρυόνας καὶ κόρακας.
(Pseudo-Aristotle, Physiognomonica 812b)

Those whose eyes are grey or whitish are cowardly; for a whitish colour has been shown to be a sign of cowardice. But those whose eyes are not grey but bright are stout-hearted; witness the lion and the eagle. Those whose eyes are wine-dark are gluttonous; witness the goats. Those who have flaming eyes are shameless; witness the dogs. Those who have pale and blotchy eyes are cowardly; this refers to the affection, because men who are terrified turn pale with a complexion which changes. But those who have gleaming eyes are sensual; witness cocks and ravens.
(tr. W.S. Hett)