Epiprōson

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This is part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

Κἀγὼ ἐπειδὴ ῥᾳδίως πάντα ὑπήκουσα καὶ εἰς τέλος ἡμῖν ἔληξε τὰ παλαίσματα, λέγω πρὸς τὴν Παλαίστραν ἅμα ἐπιγελάσας, “ὦ διδάσκαλε, ὁρᾷς μὲν ὅπως εὐχερῶς καὶ εὐηκόως πεπάλαισταί μοι, σκόπει δέ, μὴ οὐκ ἐν κόσμῳ τὰ παλαίσματα ὑποβάλλῃς· ἄλλα γὰρ ἐξ ἄλλων ἐπιτάττεις.” ἡ δὲ ἐπὶ κόρρης πλήξασά με, “ὡς φλύαρον” ἔφη “παρέλαβον τὸν μαθητήν. σκόπει οὖν μὴ πληγὰς ἔτι πλείους λάβῃς ἄλλα καὶ οὐ τὰ ἐπιταττόμενα παλαίων.” καὶ ταῦτα εἰποῦσα ἐπανίσταται καὶ θεραπεύσασα ἑαυτήν, “νῦν” ἔφη “δείξεις εἴπερ νέος εἶ καὶ εὔτονος παλαιστὴς καὶ εἰ ἐπίστασαι παλαίειν καὶ ποιεῖν τὰ ἀπὸ γονατίου.” καὶ πεσοῦσα ἐπὶ τοῦ λέχους ἐς γόνυ, “ἄγε δὴ σὺ ὁ παλαιστής, ἔχεις τὰ μέσα, ὥστε τινάξας ὀξεῖαν ἐπίπρωσον καὶ βάθυνον. ψιλὸν ὁρᾷς αὐτοῦ παρακείμενον, τούτῳ χρῆσαι· πρῶτον δὲ κατὰ λόγον, ὡς ἅμμα σφίγγε, εἶτα ἀνακλάσας ἔμβαλλε καὶ σύνεχε καὶ μὴ δίδου διάστημα. ἐὰν δὲ χαλᾶται, θᾶττον ἐπάρας ἀνώτερον μετάθες καὶ κρούσας κῦψον καὶ σκόπει ὅπως μὴ ἀνασπάσῃς θᾶττον ἢ κελευσθῇς, ἀλλὰ δὴ κυρτώσας πολὺ αὐτὸν ὕφελκε, καὶ ὑποβαλὼν κάτω αὖθις τὴν παρεμβολὴν σύνεχε καὶ κινοῦ, εἶτα ἄφες αὐτόν· πέπτωκε γὰρ καὶ λέλυται καὶ ὕδωρ ὅλος ἔστι σοι ὁ ἀνταγωνιστής.” ἐγὼ δὲ ἤδη μέγα ἀναγελῶν, “ἐθέλω” ἔφην “καὶ αὐτός, ὦ διδάσκαλε, παλαίσματα ὀλίγ’ ἄττα ἐπιτάξαι, σὺ δὲ ὑπάκουσον ἐπαναστᾶσα καὶ κάθισον, εἶτα δοῦσα κατὰ χειρὸς πάραψαι τὸ λοιπὸν καὶ καταμάττου, καί με πρὸς τοῦ Ἡρακλέους περιλαβοῦσα ἤδη κοίμισον.” ἐν τοιαύταις ἡδοναῖς καὶ παιδιαῖς παλαισμάτων ἀγωνιζόμενοι νυκτερινοὺς ἀγῶνας ἐστεφανούμεθα.
(Lucian, Loukios ē Onos 10-11)

When I for my part had obeyed every order with ease and our wrestling had come to an end, I said to Palaestra with a laugh, “You can see, teacher, how readily and obediently I have done my wrestling, but take care that you aren’t getting out of order in suggesting holds. For you ask for one after another.” But she slapped my face and said, “What a chatter-box I have for my pupil! Take care that you don’t get some more slaps for using different holds from the ones I ask for.” So saying, she rose from the bed, and, after freshening up, said “Now you will show whether you’re a youthful and vigorous wrestler, and can wrestle and go into action on your knees.” Then she dropped on to one knee on the bed and said “Come now. Sir Wrestler, here you have the centre of operations. Brandish your weapon, push forward for a sharp thrust and plunge it in deep. You see it lying unfolded there; make the most of it. First, of course, you must go into a clinch with me, and then you must bend me back, attacking and gripping me tight, allowing no gap between us. If you start slacking off, you must be faster in mounting each offensive and must move to a higher point of vantage. You must put your head down and strike, and see that you don’t retire quicker than you’re told to; you must arch your battle-line into a wide curve, before making a gradual withdrawal. Then you must push down again in a controlled infiltration and keep on the move. Only then may you withdraw your spearhead from the field. For it’s now limp and lifeless, and your opponent is drenched.” I was now laughing heartily and said, “I wish to prescribe a few holds of my own, teacher, and you must get up and obey me. Now sit down. Next give me water to wash my hands, apply the rest of the ointment and wipe yourself clean. And now, by Heracles, hold me tight and lull me to sleep.” Such were our pleasant, frolicsome wrestling-bouts as we competed in nightly combat and covered ourselves with laurels. (tr. Matthew D. Macleod)

Palaiōmen

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This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

Κἀπειδὴ ἀφίκετό ποτε ὁ Ἵππαρχος, λουσάμενοι ἐδειπνοῦμεν καὶ πότος ἦν συχνὸς ἡμῶν ὁμιλούντων· εἶτα τοῦ ὕπνου καταψευσάμενος ἀνίσταμαι καὶ ἔργῳ ἀπῄειν ἔνθα ᾤκουν. πάντα δὲ τὰ ἔνδον εὖ παρεσκεύαστο· τῷ μὲν παιδὶ ἔξω ὑπέστρωτο, τράπεζα δὲ τῇ κλίνῃ παρειστήκει ποτήριον ἔχουσα· καὶ οἶνος αὐτοῦ παρέκειτο καὶ ὕδωρ ἕτοιμον καὶ ψυχρὸν καὶ θερμόν. πᾶσα δὲ ἦν αὕτη τῆς Παλαίστρας παρασκευή. τῶν δὲ στρωμάτων ῥόδα πολλὰ κατεπέπαστο, τὰ μὲν οὕτω γυμνὰ καθ’ αὑτά, τὰ δὲ λελυμένα, τὰ δὲ στεφάνοις συμπεπλεγμένα. κἀγὼ τὸ συμπόσιον εὑρὼν ἕτοιμον ἔμενον τὸν συμπότην. ἡ δὲ ἐπειδὴ κατέκλινε τὴν δέσποιναν, σπουδῇ παρ’ ἐμὲ ἧκε, καὶ ἦν εὐφροσύνη τὸν οἶνον ἡμῶν καὶ τὰ φιλήματα προπινόντων ἀλλήλοις. ὡς δὲ τῷ ποτῷ παρεσκευάσαμεν ἑαυτοὺς εὖ πρὸς τὴν νύκτα, λέγει πρός με ἡ Παλαίστρα· “τοῦτο μὲν πάντως δεῖ σε μνημονεύειν, ὦ νεανίσκε, ὅτι εἰς Παλαίστραν ἐμπέπτωκας, καὶ χρή σε νῦν ἐπιδεῖξαι εἰ γέγονας ἐν τοῖς ἐφήβοις γοργὸς καὶ παλαίσματα πολλὰ ἔμαθές ποτε.”—”ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἂν ἴδοις φεύγοντά με τὸν ἔλεγχον τοῦτον· ὥστε ἀπόδυσαι, καὶ ἤδη παλαίωμεν.” ἡ δέ “οὕτως” ἔφη “ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω, παράσχου μοι τὴν ἐπίδειξιν· ἐγὼ μὲν νόμῳ διδασκάλου καὶ ἐπιστάτου τὰ ὀνόματα τῶν παλαισμάτων ὧν ἐθέλω εὑροῦσα ἐρῶ, σὺ δὲ ἕτοιμος γίνου ἐς τὸ ὑπακούειν καὶ ποιεῖν πᾶν τὸ κελευόμενον.”—”ἀλλ’ ἐπίταττε” ἔφην “καὶ σκόπει ὅπως εὐχερῶς καὶ ὑγρῶς τὰ παλαίσματα καὶ εὐτόνως ἔσται.” ἡ δὲ ἀποδυσαμένη τὴν ἐσθῆτα καὶ στᾶσα ὅλη γυμνὴ ἔνθεν ἤρξατο ἐπιτάττειν, “ὦ μειράκιον, ἔκδυσαι καὶ ἀλειψάμενος ἔνθεν ἐκ τοῦ μύρου συμπλέκου τῷ ἀνταγωνιστῇ· δύο μηρῶν σπάσας κλῖνον ὑπτίαν, ἔπειτα  νώτερος ὑποβάλων διὰ μηρῶν καὶ διαστείλας αἰώρει καὶ τεῖνε ἄνω τὰ σκέλη, καὶ χαλάσας καὶ στήσας κολλῶ αὐτῷ καὶ παρεισελθὼν βάλε καὶ πρώσας νύσσε ἤδη πανταχοῦ ἕως πονέσῃ, καὶ ἡ ὀσφὺς ἰσχυέτω, εἶτα ἐξελκύσας κατὰ πλάτος διὰ βουβῶνος δῆξον, καὶ πάλιν συνώθει εἰς τὸν τοῖχον, εἶτα τύπτε· ἐπειδὰν δὲ χάλασμα ἴδῃς, τότ’ ἤδη ἐπιβὰς ἅμμα κατ’ ἰξύος δήσας σύνεχε, καὶ πειρῶ μὴ σπεύδειν, ἀλλ’ ὀλίγον διακαρτερήσας σύντρεχε. ἤδη ἀπολέλυσαι.”
(Lucian, Loukios ē Onos 7-9)

When Hipparchus eventually arrived, we washed and had dinner, drinking a great deal as we talked. Then I pretended I was sleepy, got up and did in fact go off to my room. Everything inside the room had been beautifully prepared. Bedding had been made up for my servant outside, while beside my bed was a table with a cup. There was wine there, and hot and cold water had been left ready; this was all the work of Palaestra. Over the bedclothes roses had been strewn in profusion, some of them in their natural state, some plucked apart, and others plaited into garlands. Finding the room prepared for the celebrations, I awaited my companion. Once she had seen her mistress to bed, she hurried to my room, and we made merry as we offered each other toasts and kisses. When we had fortified ourselves with wine for the night ahead. Palaestra said to me, “Young fellow, you must remember that it’s Palaestra with whom you’ve come to grips, and you must now show whether you’ve become a lad of mettle and have learnt many a wrestling hold.”—”Indeed you won’t see me shirking this trial of strength. Strip then, and let’s start our wrestling now.”—”You must follow my wishes as you demonstrate your prowess. I shall be like a trainer and supervisor, thinking up and calling out the names of the holds I wish, and you must be ready to obey and carry out all your orders.”—”Well give your orders,” said I, “and see how readily, how nimbly and how vigorously I shall display my holds.” She stripped off her clothing and, standing completely naked, began her instructions there and then. “Strip off, my lad; rub on some of that ointment from over there, and grapple with your adversary. Grab me by both thighs and put me on my back. Next get on top of me, slip in through my thighs and open me up, keeping your legs poised above me and stretched out. Then drop them into position, keeping glued to your target. Go right into the assault, and push forward everywhere now with a sharp attack till your opponent is worn out, and let your weapon show its strength. Then withdraw, attack on a broad front and stab your foe through the groin. Push forward again to the wall and then strike. When you notice that the resistance is weakening, that’s the very time to lock yourself in close combat and grip your opponent by the waist. Try not to hurry, but be patient for a little and match your pace to mine. Now you can fall out from class.” (tr. Matthew D. Macleod)

Phrugeis

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This is part 1 of 3. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here.

Τὸν μὲν οὖν Ἵππαρχον οὐ κατέλαβον ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ οὐδὲ τὴν ἐκείνου γυναῖκα, ἡ δὲ Παλαίστρα τῇ ἑστίᾳ παρήδρευε δεῖπνον ἡμῖν εὐτρεπίζουσα. κἀγὼ εὐθὺς ἔνθεν ἑλών, “ὡς εὐρύθμως,” ἔφην, “ὦ καλὴ Παλαίστρα, τὴν πυγὴν τῇ χύτρᾳ ὁμοῦ συμπεριφέρεις καὶ κλίνεις. ἡ δὲ ὀσφὺς ἡμῖν ὑγρῶς ἐπικινεῖται. μακάριος ὅστις ἐνταῦθα ἐνεβάψατο.” ἡ δὲ – σφόδρα γὰρ ἦν ἰταμὸν καὶ χαρίτων μεστὸν τὸ κοράσιον—”φεύγοις ἄν,” εἶπεν, “ὦ νεανίσκε, εἴ γε νοῦν ἔχοις καὶ ζῆν ἐθέλοις, ὡς πολλοῦ πυρὸς καὶ κνίσης μεστά· ἢν γὰρ αὐτοῦ μόνον ἅψῃ, τραῦμα ἔχων πυρίκαυτον αὐτοῦ μοι παρεδρεύσει, θεραπεύσει δέ σε οὐδεὶς ἀλλ’ οὐδὲ θεὸς ἰατρός, ἀλλ’ ἡ κατακαύσασά σε μόνη ἐγώ, καὶ τὸ παραδοξότατον, ἐγὼ μέν σε ποιήσω πλέον ποθεῖν, καὶ τῆς ἀπὸ τῆς θεραπείας ὀδύνης ἀρδόμενος ἀεὶ  ἀνθέξῃ καὶ οὐδὲ λίθοις βαλλόμενος τὴν γλυκεῖαν ὀδύνην φεύξῃ. τί γελᾷς; ἀκριβῆ βλέπεις ἀνθρωπομάγειρον. οὐ γὰρ μόνα ταῦτα φαῦλα ἐδώδιμα σκευάζω, ἀλλ’ ἤδη τὸ μέγα τοῦτο καὶ καλόν, τὸν ἄνθρωπον, οἶδα ἔγωγε καὶ σφάττειν καὶ δέρειν καὶ κατακόπτειν, ἥδιστα δὲ τῶν σπλάγχνων αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς καρδίας ἅπτομαι.”—”τοῦτο μὲν ὀρθῶς” ἔφην “λέγεις· καὶ γὰρ ἐμὲ πόρρωθεν καὶ μηδὲ ἐγγὺς ὄντα οὐ κατακαύματι μὰ Δί’ ἀλλὰ ὅλῳ ἐμπρησμῷ ἐπέθηκας, καὶ διὰ τῶν ὀμμάτων τῶν ἐμῶν τὸ σὸν μὴ φαινόμενον πῦρ κάτω ἐς τὰ σπλάγχνα τἀμὰ ῥίψασα φρύγεις, καὶ ταῦτα οὐδὲν ἀδικοῦντα· ὥστε πρὸς θεῶν ἴασαί με ταύταις αἷς λέγεις αὐτὴ ταῖς πικραῖς καὶ ἡδείαις θεραπείαις, καί με ἤδη ἀπεσφαγμένον λαβοῦσα δεῖρε, ὅπως αὐτὴ θέλεις.” ἡ δὲ μέγα καὶ ἥδιστον ἐκ τούτου ἀνακαγχάσασα ἐμὴ τὸ λοιπὸν ἦν, καὶ συνέκειτο ἡμῖν, ὅπως, ἐπειδὰν κατακοιμίσῃ τοὺς δεσπότας, ἔλθῃ εἴσω παρ’ ἐμὲ καὶ καθευδήσῃ.
(Lucian, Loukios ē Onos 5-6)

Talking thus to myself, I entered the house. I found neither Hipparchus nor his wife at home, but Palaestra was busy at the fireplace preparing our dinner. I immediately did make my start from thence and said, “Palaestra, you lovely creature, how rhythmically you turn and tilt your buttocks in time with the saucepan! And my word, how nimble too is the motion of your waist. Happy the man who dips his piece in such a dish!” She, being a most lively and attractive little wench, said, “You’d run away, young fellow, if you had any sense and any desire to go on living, for it’s all full of fire and steam here. If you so much as touch it, you’ll have a nasty burn, and won’t be able to budge from here. No one will be able to cure you, no, not even the Healer God himself, but only I who gave you the burn. What’s strangest of all is that I shall make you long for more, and you’ll always submit to being treated with my painful cure and, even though you’re pelted with stones, you’ll never try to escape its sweet pain. Why do you laugh? You see before you a veritable man-cooker. For it’s not merely these common foods that I prepare, but now I know about that great and glorious dish, man. I can kill a man, skin him, and cut him up, and I take particular pleasure in getting my hands right on his inside and his heart.”—”What you say is quite true,” I replied, “for even when I was still a long way off, you didn’t just singe me but plunged me into a general conflagration; you’ve been sending your invisible fire down through my eyes into my inward parts and roasting me, even though I’ve done nothing wrong. Therefore, in heaven’s name, heal me yourself, with that bittersweet treatment of which you’ve been talking and, now that I’m already slaughtered, take me and skin me in any way you yourself please.”

At this she gave a loud and delightful laugh, and thereafter she was mine. We agreed that, once she had seen her master and mistress to bed, she was to come to my room and spend the night there.

(tr. Matthew D. Macleod)

Epenthei

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Ἐπεὶ δὲ Ἡρῴδης ὁ πάνυ ἐπένθει τὸν Πολυδεύκη πρὸ ὥρας ἀποθανόντα καὶ ἠξίου ὄχημα ζεύγνυσθαι αὐτῷ καὶ ἵππους παρίστασθαι ὡς ἀναβησομένῳ καὶ δεῖπνον παρασκευάζεσθαι, προσελθών, “παρὰ Πολυδεύκους,” ἔφη, “κομίζω σοὶ τινα ἐπιστολήν.” ἡσθέντος δὲ ἐκείνου καὶ οἰηθέντος ὅτι κατὰ τὸ κοινὸν καὶ αὐτὸς τοῖς ἄλλοις συντρέχει τῷ πάθει αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἰπόντος, “τί οὖν, ὦ Δημῶναξ, Πολυδεύκης ἀξιοῖ;” “αἰτιᾶταί σε,” ἔφη, “ὅτι μὴ ἤδη πρὸς αὐτὸν ἄπει.”
(Lucian, Demonax 24)

When Herodes the superlative was mourning Polydeukes and wanted a chariot made and horses put to it just as if the boy were going for a drive, and dinner regularly served for him, Demonax went to him and said: “I am bringing you a message from Polydeukes.” Herodes was pleased and thought that Demonax, like everyone else, was falling in with his humour; so he said: “Well, what does Polydeukes want, Demonax?” “He finds fault with you,” he said, “for not going to join him at once!” (tr. Austin Morris Harmon)

Tuphloteron

Tiresias

Ἐγὼ δέ, οὗπερ ἀφίγμην ἕνεκα, τῷ Τειρεσίᾳ προσελθὼν ἱκέτευον αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα διηγησάμενος εἰπεῖν πρός με ποῖόν τινα ἡγεῖται τὸν ἄριστον βίον. ὁ δὲ γελάσας — ἔστι δὲ τυφλόν τι γερόντιον καὶ ὠχρὸν καὶ λεπτόφωνον — “ὦ τέκνον,” φησί, “τήν μὲν αἰτίαν οἶδά σοι τῆς ἀπορίας ὅτι παρὰ τῶν σοφῶν ἐγένετο οὐ ταὐτὰ γιγνωσκόντων ἑαυτοῖς· ἀτὰρ οὐ θέμις λέγειν πρὸς σέ· ἀπείρηται γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ Ῥαδαμάνθυος.” “μηδαμῶς,” ἔφην, “ὦ πατέριον, ἀλλ’ εἰπὲ καὶ μὴ περιίδῃς με σοῦ τυφλότερον περιιόντα ἐν τῷ βίῳ.” ὁ δὲ δή με ἀπαγαγὼν καὶ πολὺ τῶν ἄλλων ἀποσπάσας ἤρεμα προσκύψας πρὸς τὸ οὖς φησίν, “ὁ τῶν ἰδιωτῶν ἄριστος βίος, καὶ σωφρονέστερος παυσάμενος τοῦ μετεωρολογεῖν καὶ τέλη καὶ ἀρχὰς ἐπισκοπεῖν καὶ καταπτύσας τῶν σοφῶν τούτων συλλογισμῶν καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα λῆρον ἡγησάμενος τοῦτο μόνον ἐξ ἅπαντος θηράσῃ, ὅπως τὸ παρὸν εὖ θέμενος παραδράμῃς γελῶν τὰ πολλὰ καὶ περὶ μηδὲν ἐσπουδακώς.”
(Lucian, Menippos 21)

For my part, I did what I came to do. Going to Teiresias, I told him the whole story and besought him to tell me what sort of life he considered the best. He laughed (he is a blind little old gentleman, pale, with a piping voice) and said: “My son, I know the reason for your perplexity; it came from the wise men, who are not consistent with themselves. But it is not permissible to tell you, for Rhadamanthus has forbidden it.” “Don’t say that, gaffer,’ said I. “Tell me, and don’t allow me to go about in life blinder than you are.” So he took me aside, and after he had led me a good way apart from the others, he bent his head slightly toward my ear and said: “The life of the common sort is best, and you will act more wisely if you stop speculating about heavenly bodies and discussing final causes and first causes, spit your scorn at those clever syllogisms, and counting all that sort of thing nonsense, make it always your sole object to put the present to good use and to hasten on your way, laughing a great deal and taking nothing seriously.” (tr. Austin Morris Harmon)

Mēnutēs

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Μάλιστα δὲ καὶ πρὸ τῶν πάντων ἐλεύθερος ἔστω τὴν γνώμην καὶ μήτε φοβείσθω μηδένα μήτε ἐλπιζέτω μηδέν, ἐπεὶ ὅμοιος ἔσται τοῖς φαύλοις δικασταῖς πρὸς χάριν ἢ πρὸς ἀπέχθειαν ἐπὶ μισθῷ δικάζουσιν. ἀλλὰ μὴ μελέτω αὐτῷ μήτε Φίλιππος ἐκκεκομμένος τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν ὑπὸ Ἀστέρος τοῦ Ἀμφιπολίτου τοῦ τοξότου ἐν Ὀλύνθῳ, ἀλλὰ τοιοῦτος οἷος ἦν δειχθήσεται· μήτ’ εἰ Ἀλέξανδρος ἀνιάσεται ἐπὶ τῇ Κλείτου σφαγῇ ὠμῶς ἐν τῷ συμποσίῳ γενομένῃ, εἰ σαφῶς ἀναγράφοιτο· οὐδὲ Κλέων αὐτὸν φοβήσει μέγα ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ δυνάμενος καὶ κατέχων τὸ βῆμα, ὡς μὴ εἰπεῖν ὅτι ὀλέθριος καὶ μανικὸς ἄνθρωπος οὗτος ἦν· οὐδὲ ἡ σύμπασα πόλις τῶν Ἀθηναίων, ἢν τὰ ἐν Σικελίᾳ κακὰ ἱστορῇ καὶ τὴν Δημοσθένους λῆψιν καὶ τὴν Νικίου τελευτὴν καὶ ὡς ἐδίψων καὶ οἷον τὸ ὕδωρ ἔπινον καὶ ὡς ἐφονεύοντο πίνοντες οἱ πολλοί. ἡγήσεται γὰρ — ὅπερ δικαιότατον — ὑπ’ οὐδενὸς τῶν νοῦν ἐχόντων αὐτὸς ἕξειν τὴν αἰτίαν ἢν τὰ δυστυχῶς ἢ ἀνοήτως γεγενημένα ὡς ἐπράχθη διηγῆται· οὐ γὰρ ποιητὴς αὐτῶν, ἀλλὰ μηνυτὴς ἦν. ὥστε κἂν καταναυμαχῶνται τότε, οὐκ ἐκεῖνος ὁ καταδύων ἐστί, κἂν φεύγωσιν οὐκ ἐκεῖνος ὁ διώκων, ἐκτὸς εἰ μή, εὔξασθαι δέον, παρέλιπεν. ἐπεί τοί γε εἰ σιωπήσας αὐτὰ ἢ πρὸς τοὐναντίον εἰπὼν ἐπανορθώσασθαι ἐδύνατο, ῥᾷστον ἦν ἑνὶ καλάμῳ λεπτῷ τὸν Θουκυδίδην ἀνατρέψαι μὲν τὸ ἐν ταῖς Ἐπιπολαῖς παρατείχισμα, καταδῦσαι δὲ τὴν Ἑρμοκράτους τριήρη καὶ τὸν κατάρατον Γύλιππον διαπεῖραι μεταξὺ ἀποτειχίζοντα καὶ ἀποταφρεύοντα τὰς ὁδούς καὶ τέλος Συρακουσίους μὲν ἐς τὰς λιθοτομίας ἐμβαλεῖν, τοὺς δὲ Ἀθηναίους περιπλεῖν Σικελίαν καὶ Ἰταλίαν μετὰ τῶν πρώτων τοῦ Ἀλκιβιάδου ἐλπίδων. ἀλλ᾽, οἶμαι, τὰ μὲν πραχθέντα οὐδὲ Κλωθὼ ἂν ἔτι ἀνακλώσειεν οὐδὲ Ἄτροπος μετατρέψειε.
(Lucian, Pōs Dei Historian Sungraphein 38)

Above all and before everything else, let his* mind be free, let him fear no one and expect nothing, or else he will be like a bad judge who sells his verdict to curry favour or gratify hatred. He must not be concerned that Philip has had his eye put out by Aster of Amphipolis, the archer at Olynthus — he must show him exactly as he was. Nor must he mind if Alexander is going to be angry when he gives a clear account of the cruel murder of Clitus at the banquet. Neither will Cleon with his great power in the assembly and his mastery of the platform frighten him from saying that he was murderous and lunatic: nor even the entire city of the Athenians if he records the disaster of Sicily, the capture of Demosthenes, and the death of Nicias, the thirst of the troops, the sort of water they drank, and how most of them were slain as they drank it. For he will think quite rightly that no man of sense will blame him if he gives an account of unlucky or stupid actions — he has not been responsible for them, he has merely told the tale. So that if they are ever defeated in a sea-fight it is not he who sank them and if they run away it is not he who drives them on, unless he neglected to say a prayer when he ought. Surely if by ignoring them or reversing them he could set them right, it would have been very easy for Thucydides with one insubstantial pen to overturn the counter-wall at Epipolae, and sink the trireme of Hermocrates, to transfix that cursed man Gylippus in the act of blocking the roads with walls and ditches, and finally to throw the Syracusans into the stone-quarries while the Athenians sailed round Sicily and Italy as Alcibiades had first hoped. No, when what is done is done I fancy that even Clotho could not unspin their destiny or Atropus change their course.

* sc. the historian’s.

(tr. Austin Morris Harmon)

Hugiaineis

13

Ὥστε διὰ ταῦτα ὑγιαίνεις τε καὶ ἔρρωσαι τὸ σῶμα καὶ διακαρτερεῖς πρὸς τὸ κρύος· οἱ πόνοι γάρ σε παραθήγοντες οὐκ εὐκαταφρόνητον ἀνταγωνιστὴν ἀποφαίνουσι πρὸς τὰ δοκοῦντα τοῖς ἄλλοις ἄμαχα εἶναι. ἀμέλει οὐδέν σοι τῶν χαλεπῶν τούτων νοσημάτων πρόσεισιν, ἀλλ’ ἤν ποτε κοῦφος πυρετὸς ἐπιλάβηται, πρὸς ὀλίγον ὑπηρετήσας αὐτῷ ἀνεπήδησας εὐθὺς ἀποσεισάμενος τὴν ἄσην, ὁ δὲ φεύγει αὐτίκα φοβηθείς, ψυχροῦ σε ὁρῶν ἐμφορούμενον καὶ μακρὰ οἰμώζειν λέγοντα ταῖς ἰατρικαῖς περιόδοις· οἱ δὲ ὑπ’ ἀκρασίας ἄθλιοι τί τῶν κακῶν οὐκ ἔχουσι, ποδάγρας καὶ φθόας καὶ περιπλευμονίας καὶ ὑδέρους; αὗται γὰρ τῶν πολυτελῶν ἐκείνων δείπνων ἀπόγονοι. τοιγαροῦν οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν ὥσπερ ὁ Ἴκαρος ἐπὶ πολὺ ἄραντες αὑτοὺς καὶ πλησιάσαντες τῷ ἡλίῳ οὐκ εἰδότες ὅτι κηρῷ ἥρμοστο αὐτοῖς ἡ πτέρωσις, μέγαν ἐνίοτε τὸν πάταγον ἐποίησαν ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν ἐς πέλαγος ἐπεσόντες· ὅσοι δὲ κατὰ τὸν Δαίδαλον μὴ πάνυ μετέωρα μηδὲ ὑψηλὰ ἐφρόνησαν ἀλλὰ πρόσγεια, ὡς νοτίζεσθαι ἐνίοτε τῇ ἅλμῃ τὸν κηρόν, ὡς τὸ πολὺ οὗτοι ἀσφαλῶς διέπτησαν.
(Lucian, Oneiros ē Alektruōn) 23)

So in consequence of all this you are sound and strong in body and can stand the cold, for your hardships have trained you fine and made you no mean fighter against adverse conditions that seem to the rest of the world irresistible. No chance that one of their severe illnesses will come near you: on the contrary, if ever you get a light fever, after humouring it a little while you jump out of bed at once, shaking off your discomfort, and the fever in terror takes flight immediately on seeing that you drink cold water and have no use for doctors’ visits. But the rich, unhappy that they are – what ills are they not subject to through intemperance? Gout and consumption and pneumonia and dropsy are the consequences of those splendid dinners. In brief, some of them who like Icarus fly high and draw near the sun without knowing that their wings are fitted on with wax, now and then make a great splash by falling head-first into the sea, while of those who, copying Daedalus, have not let their ambitions soar high in the air but have kept them close to earth so that the wax is occasionally wet with spray, the most part reach their journey’s end in safety. (tr. Austin Morris Harmon)