Euchesthai

child-praying

Ὁκόσα μὲν οὖν τῶν ἐνυπνίων θεῖά ἐστι καὶ προσημαίνει ἢ πόλεσι ἢ ἰδιώτῃσι ἢ κακὰ ἢ ἀγαθὰ †μὴ δι’ αὐτῶν ἁμαρτίην,† εἰσὶ οἳ κρίνουσι περὶ τῶν τοιούτων τέχνην ἔχοντες· ὁκόσα δὲ ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ σώματος παθήματα προσημαίνει, πλησμονῆς ἢ κενώσιος ὑπερβολὴν τῶν συμφυτῶν, ἢ μεταβολὴν τῶν ἀηθέων, κρίνουσι μὲν καὶ ταῦτα, καὶ τὰ μὲν τυγχάνουσι, τὰ δὲ ἁμαρτάνουσι, καὶ οὐδέτερα τούτων γινώσκουσι, δι’ ὅ τι γίνεται, οὔθ’ ὅ τι ἂν ἐπιτύχωσιν, οὔθ’ ὅ τι ἂν ἁμάρτωσι, φυλάσσεσθαι δὲ παραινέοντες μή τι κακὸν λάβῃ. οἱ δ’ οὖν οὐ διδάσκουσιν ὡς χρὴ φυλάξασθαι, ἀλλὰ θεοῖσιν εὔχεσθαι κελεύουσι. καὶ τὸ μὲν εὔχεσθαι ἀγαθόν· δεῖ δὲ καὶ αὐτὸν συλλαμβάνοντα τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπικαλεῖσθαι.
(Hippocrates, Peri Diaitēs 4.2)

Now such dreams as are divine, and foretell to cities or to private persons things evil or things good, have interpreters in those who possess the art of dealing with such things. But all the physical symptoms foretold by the soul, excess, of surfeit or of depletion, of things natural, or change to unaccustomed things, these also the diviners interpret, sometimes with, sometimes without success. But in neither case do they know the cause, either of their success or of their failure. They recommend precautions to be taken to prevent harm, yet they give no instruction how to take precautions, but only recommend prayers to the gods. Prayer indeed is good, but while calling on the gods a man should himself lend a hand. (tr. William Henry Samuel Jones)

Misgesthai

exposing

Τῇσι δὲ γυναιξί φημι ἐν τῇ μίξει τριβομένου τοῦ αἰδοίου καὶ τῶν μητρέων κινευμένων, ὥσπερ κνησμὸν ἐμπίπτειν ἐς αὐτὰς καὶ τῷ ἄλλῳ σώματι ἡδονὴν καὶ θέρμην παρέχειν. μεθίει δὲ καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ σώματος ὁτὲ μὲν ἐς τὰς μήτρας, αἱ δὲ μῆτραι ἰκμαλέαι γίνονται, ὁτὲ δὲ καὶ ἔξω, ἢν χάσκωσιν αἱ μῆτραι μᾶλλον τοῦ καιροῦ. καὶ ἥδεται, ἐπὴν ἄρξηται μίσγεσθαι, διὰ παντὸς τοῦ χρόνου, μέχρις αὐτῇ μεθῇ ὁ ἀνήρ· κἢν μὲν ὀργᾷ ἡ γυνὴ μίσγεσθαι, πρόσθεν τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἀφίει, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν οὐκ ἔτι ὁμοίως ἥδεται ἡ γυνή· ἢν δὲ μὴ ὀργᾷ, συντελέει τῷ ἀνδρὶ ἡδομένη· καὶ ἔχει οὕτως ὥσπερ εἴ τις ἐπὶ ὕδωρ ζέον ἕτερον ψυχρὸν ἐπιχέει, παύεται τὸ ὕδωρ ζέον· οὕτω καὶ ἡ γονὴ πεσοῦσα τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἐς τὰς μήτρας σβέννυσι τὴν θέρμην καὶ τὴν ἡδονὴν τῆς γυναικός. ἐξαΐσσει δὲ ἡ ἡδονὴ καὶ ἡ θέρμη ἅμα τῇ γονῇ πιπτούσῃ ἐς τὰς μήτρας, ἔπειτα λήγει· ὥσπερ εἴ τις ἐπὶ φλόγα οἶνον ἐπιχέει, συμβαίνει πρῶτα μὲν ἐξαΐσσειν τὴν φλόγα καὶ αὔξεσθαι δι’ ὀλίγου πρὸς τὴν ἐπίχυσιν τοῦ οἴνου, ἔπειτα λήγειν, ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τῇ γυναικὶ ἡ θέρμη ἐξαΐσσει πρὸς τὴν γονὴν τοῦ ἀνδρὸς, ἔπειτα λήγει. ἧσσον δὲ πολλῷ ἥδεται ἡ γυνὴ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς ἐν τῇ μίξει, πλέονα δὲ χρόνον ἢ ὁ ἀνήρ· διότι δὲ μᾶλλον ὁ ἀνὴρ ἥδεται, ἀποκρίνεται αὐτῷ ἐξαπίνης ἀπὸ τοῦ ὑγροῦ ἀπὸ ταραχῆς ἰσχυροτέρης ἢ τῇ γυναικί. ἔχει δὲ καὶ τόδε οὕτω τῇσι γυναιξίν· ἢν μὲν μίσγωνται ἀνδράσι, μᾶλλον ὑγιαίνουσιν· ἢν δὲ μὴ, ἧσσον. ἅμα μὲν γὰρ αἱ μῆτραι ἰκμαλέαι γίνονται ἐν τῇ μίξει καὶ οὐ ξηραὶ, ξηραὶ δὲ ἐοῦσαι μᾶλλον τοῦ καιροῦ συστρέφονται ἰσχυρῶς, συστρεφόμεναι δὲ ἰσχυρῶς πόνον τῷ σώματι παρέχουσιν· ἅμα δὲ ἡ μίξις τὸ αἷμα θερμαίνουσα καὶ ὑγραίνουσα ποιέει ὁδὸν ῥηϊτέρην τοῖσι καταμηνίοισι· τῶν δὲ καταμηνίων μὴ χωρεόντων τὰ σώματα τῶν γυναικῶν ἐπίνοσα γίνεται· διότι δὲ γίνεται ἐπίνοσα, εἰρήσεταί μοι ἐν τῇσι γυναικείῃσι νούσοισιν. καὶ ταῦτα μέν μοι εἰρέαται ἐς τοῦτο.
(Hippocrates, Peri Gonēs 4)

Now in women, I assert that as their vagina is rubbed and their uterus moved during intercourse, a kind of tickling sensation befalls these parts and gives rise to pleasure and warmth in the rest of their body. And women, too, ejaculate from their body, sometimes into their uterus—the uterus then becomes moist—and sometimes externally, if the uterus gapes open more than it should. And a woman feels pleasure, once intercourse begins, for the whole time until the man ejaculates in her; if the woman is eager for intercourse, she ejaculates before the man, and from then on she no longer feels as much pleasure, but if she is not eager, her pleasure ends with the man’s. It is as if someone were to pour fresh, cold water into water that is boiling: the water stops boiling. So, in the same way, a man’s seed falling into the uterus extinguishes a woman’s warmth and pleasure. In fact a woman’s pleasure and warmth leap up at the moment the seed falls into her uterus, but then cease; it is as if someone were to pour wine on to a flame: what happens is that the flame first leaps up and increases for a short time, from the wine being poured on to it, but then ceases. In the same way, a woman’s warmth leaps up from a man’s seed, but then ceases. A woman feels much less pleasure in intercourse than a man, but for a longer time than he does. The reason a man feels more pleasure is that the secretion from his moisture occurs suddenly as the result of a stronger agitation than in a woman. The following point is also true for women: if they have intercourse with men they are more likely to be healthy, if not, then less so. For first, their uterus becomes moist during intercourse, rather than being in a dry state, and in a dry state it contracts more strongly than it should, and in contracting provokes serious trouble in the body. Second, intercourse makes the menses pass more easily by warming and moistening the blood, whereas if the menses do not pass, women’s bodies become prone to disease: why they become prone to disease, I will explain in Diseases of Women. This is what I have to say on the subject. (tr. Paul Potter)

Hagnōs

hippocrates

Διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ’ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν. οὐ δώσω δὲ οὐδὲ φάρμακον οὐδενὶ αἰτηθεὶς θανάσιμον, οὐδὲ ὑφηγήσομαι συμβουλίην τοιήνδε· ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ γυναικὶ πεσσὸν φθόριον δώσω. ἁγνῶς δὲ καὶ ὁσίως διατηρήσω βίον τὸν ἐμὸν καὶ τέχνην τὴν ἐμήν.
(Hippocrates, Horkos)

I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with a view to injury and wrong-doing. Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure and holy both my life and my art. (tr. William Henry Samuel Jones)

Parekrousen

Ἐν Μελιβοίῃ νεηνίσκος ἐκ πότων καὶ ἀφροδισίων πολλῶν πολὺν χρόνον θερμανθεὶς κατεκλίθη· φρικώδης δὲ καὶ ἀσώδης ἦν καὶ ἄγρυπνος καὶ ἄδιψος.
ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης τῇ πρώτῃ πολλὰ κόπρανα διῆλθε σὺν περιρρόῳ πολλῷ, καὶ τὰς ἑπομένας ὑδατόχλοα πολλὰ διῄει· οὖρα λεπτά, ὀλίγα, ἄχρω· πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα διὰ χρόνου· ὑποχονδρίου ἔντασις ὑπολάπαρος, παραμήκης ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων· καρδίης παλμὸς διὰ τέλεος συνεχής· οὔρησεν ἐλαιῶδες.
δεκάτῃ παρέκρουσεν ἀτρεμέως, ἦν δὲ κόσμιός τε καὶ σιγῶν· δέρμα καρφαλέον καὶ περιτεταμένον· διαχωρήματα ἢ πολλὰ καὶ λεπτὰ ἢ χολώδεα, λιπαρά. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, παρέκρουσεν, πολλὰ παρέλεγεν.
εἰκοστῇ ἐξεμάνη, πολὺς βληστρισμός, οὐδὲν οὔρει, σμικρὰ ποτὰ κατείχετο.
εἰκοστῇ τετάρτῃ ἀπέθανε.
(Hippocrates, Epid. 3 case 16)

In Meliboea a youth took to his bed after being for a long time heated by drunkenness and sexual indulgence. He had shivering fits, nausea, sleeplessness, but no thirst.
First day. Copious, solid stools passed in abundance of fluid, and on the following days the excreta were copious, watery and of a greenish yellow. Urine thin, scanty and of no colour; respiration rare and large with long intervals; tension, soft underneath, of the hypochondrium, extending out to either side; continual throbbing throughout of the epigastrium; urine oily.
Tenth day. Delirious but quiet, for he was orderly and silent; skin dry and tense; stools either copious and thin or bilious and greasy.
Fourteenth day. General exacerbation; delirious with much wandering talk.
Twentieth day. Wildly out of his mind; much tossing; urine suppressed; slight quantities of drink were retained.
Twenty-fourth day. Death.
(tr. W.H.S. Jones)