Gausos

RMQ-02_Femurs

Ὅτι μὲν τὸν κυρτὸν ἡ γαῦσος φωνὴ δηλοῖ πρόδηλον ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ πράγματος. ὁ γὰρ μηρὸς οὐκ ἀκριβῶς ἐστιν εὐθὺς, ἀλλὰ εἴς τε τὸ ἔξω κυρτότερος, ὥσπερ καὶ κατ’ ἐναντία μέρη κοιλότερος. εἴτε δ’ ὀξύνειν χρὴ τοὔνομα τὸ γαυσὸς εἴτε προπερισπᾷν γαῦσος ἄδηλον. οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἐν ἔθει τῷ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἡ φωνή. κατὰ τὴν ἀναλογίαν ἔνιοι μὲν προπερισπᾶσθαι κελεύουσιν αὐτὸ παραπλησίως τῷ καῦσος καὶ μαῦρος καὶ γαῦρος, ἔνιοι δὲ ὀξυτονεῖσθαι. δηλονότι πάντα πάθη δηλοῦντα δισύλλαβα τῇ ὀξείᾳ φαίνεται κεχρημένα τάσει, χωλὸς, λορδὸς, στρεβλὸς, κυρτὸς, βλαυσὸς, ῥαιβός. οὐ μόνον δὲ τὰ δισύλλαβα, ἀλλὰ καὶ σχεδὸν ἅπαντα τὰ κατὰ πάθη λεγόμενα, ἀρθριτικὸς, πλευριτικὸς, ἡπατικός. ὁποτέρως οὖν τις θέλει φθέγγεσθαι συγχωρεῖ κἂν ποτέ σοι καὶ τὴν ὀξεῖαν τάσιν εἰπόντι γαυσός. ἐπὶ τοῦτο γὰρ μόνον ἐπειράθην ῥεπόντων τῶν ἀναγινωσκόντων τὸ βιβλίον, ἄν τ’ εἴπῃ τις  ξιῶν προπερισπᾷν, ὡς ἂν ἐκεῖνος ἐθελήσῃ καὶ σὺ φθέγγου, καὶ πάλιν ἂν ἑτέρῳ συντύχῃς ὀξυτονεῖν ἐθέλοντι, καὶ αὐτὸς οὕτως πρᾶττε καταφρονῶν καὶ τόνων καὶ ὀνομάτων, ὡς οὔτε πρὸς φιλοσοφίαν συντελούντων, πολύ γε μᾶλλον οὔτε πρὸς γεωμετρίαν ἢ  ριθμητικὴν ἢ μουσικὴν ἢ ἀστρονομικὴν, ὥστε εἰ μηδεμία τέχνη δέεται πρὸς τὸ ἑαυτῆς τέλος τῆς τῶν ἐπιτρίπτων τούτων ὀνομάτων μακρολογίας, οὐ μόνον οὐ χρὴ προσίεσθαι τὸ ἐπιτήδευμα τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ καταγελᾷν ὡς μάλιστα.
(Galen, In Hippocratis de fracturis librum commentarius secundus 18.2.517-519)

That the word γαῦσος means ‘curved’ is made very clear by the thing itself, for the thigh bone is not totally straight, but rather curved on the outside, as it is hollow on the opposite side. Whether the word is to be pronounced γαυσός, with an acute accent on the last syllable, or γαῦσος, is unclear, because the word isn’t used often in the Greek language. For reasons of analogy some say it should have a circumflex on the penultimate syllable like καῦσος, μαῦρος and γαῦρος, but others say it should be an acute accent on the last syllable since it is clear that all two syllable words for bodily symptoms have an acute pitch: χωλός, λορδός, στρεβλός, κυρτός, βλαυσός, ῥαιβός; and not only the two syllable words, but almost all terms for symptoms, such as ἀρθριτικός, πλευριτικός, ἡπατικός. Defer to whichever way somebody wants to pronounce the word. If you say γαυσός with acute pitch (for this is the only pronunciation I’ve actually seen people who read the book incline to), and someone speaks up and they think it right to pronounce it γαῦσος (as a perispomenon), then just pronounce the word the way they prefer. Then if again you come across someone else who wants to pronounce it γαυσός, do you do likewise and think nothing of word-accentuation, since it contributes nothing to philosophy and still less to geometry, arithmetic, music or astronomy. Since there is no practical craft which requires for its goal a drawn-out discussion of these damn words, one must not only not buy into people’s concern with such things, but ridicule it as much as possible. (tr. Alex Foreman, revised and expanded by David Bauwens)

Osta

Theodor Kittelsen, Fattigmannen, 1894-95
Theodor Kittelsen, Fattigmannen (1895)

Ἔργον δέ σοι γενέσθω καὶ σπούδασμα, μὴ μόνον ἐκ τοῦ βιβλίου τήν ἰδέαν ἑκάστου τῶν ὀστῶν ἀκριβῶς ἐκμαθεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τῶν ὀμμάτων σύντονον αὐτόπτην αὑτὸν ἐργάσασθαι τῶν ἀνθρωπείων ὀστῶν. ἔστι δ’ ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ μὲν τοῦτο πάνυ ῥᾴδιον, ὥστε καὶ τὴν διδασκαλίαν αὐτῶν τοῖς φοιτηταῖς, οἱ κατ’ ἐκεῖνο τὸ χωρίον ἰατροὶ μετὰ τῆς αὐτοψἰας πορίζονται. καὶ πειρατέον ἐστί σοι, κἄν μὴ δι’ ἄλλο τι, διὰ τοῦτο γοῦν αὐτὸ μόνον ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ γενέσθαι. μὴ δυνηθέντι δὲ τούτου τυχεῖν, οὐκ ἀδύνατον οὐδ’ οὕτως ἀνθρώπων ὀστᾶ θεάσασθαι. ἐγώ γε οὖν ἐθεασάμην πάνυ πολλάκις, ἤτοι τάφων τινῶν, ἢ μνημάτων διαλυθέντων. ἀλλὰ καὶ ποταμὸς ἐπαναβάς ποτε τάφῳ πρὸ μηνῶν ὀλίγων αὐτοσχεδίως γεγενημένῳ διέλυσέ τε ῥᾳδίως αὐτὸν, ἐπισυράμενός τε τῇ ῥύμῃ τῆς φορᾶς ὅλον τοῦ νεκροῦ τὸ σῶμα, τῶν μὲν σαρκῶν ἤδη σεσηπυιῶν, ἀκριβῶς δ’ ἀλλήλοις ἔτι συνεχομένων τῶν ὀστῶν, ἄχρι μὲν σταδίου κάταντες συρόμενον ἐπηνέγκατο· λιμνώδους δὲ αὐτὸ ἐκδεξαμένου χωρίου, τοῖς χείλεσιν ὑπτίου, πρὸς τοῦτο ἀπεκρούσθη τὸ τοῦ νεκροῦ σῶμα, καὶ ἦν ἰδεῖν καὶ τοῦτο τοιοῦτο, οἶόν περ ἂν ἐπίτηδες αὐτὸ παρεσκεύασεν ἰατρὸς εἰς διδασκαλίαν μειρακίου. ἐθεασάμεθα δέ ποτε καὶ λῃστοῦ σκελετὸν ἐν ὄρει κείμενον ὀλίγον ἐξωτέρω τῆς ὁδοῦ, ὃν ἀπέκτεινε μέν τις ὁδοιπόρος ἐπεγχειροῦντα πρότερον ὁμόσε χωρήσας, οὐκ ἔμελλε δὲ θάψειν οὐδεὶς τῶν οἰκητόρων τῆς χώρας ἐκείνης, ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ μίσους ἐπέχαιρον ἐσθιομένῳ τῷ σώματι πρὸς τῶν οἰωνῶν, οἵτινες ἐν δυσὶν ἡμέραις αὐτοῦ καταφαγόντες τὰς σάρκας ἀπέλιπον ὡς εἰς διδασκαλίαν τῷ βουληθέντι θεάσασθαι τὸν σκελετόν.
(Galen, De Anatomicis Administrationibus 2)

Make it rather your serious endeavour not only to acquire accurate book-knowledge of each bone but also to examine assiduously with your own eyes the human bones themselves. This is quite easy at Alexandria because the physicians there employ ocular demonstration in teaching osteology to students. For this reason, if for no other, try to visit Alexandria. But if you cannot, it is still possible to see something of human bones. I, at least, have done so often on the breaking open of a grave or tomb. Thus once a river, inundating a recent hastily made grave, broke it up, washing away the body. The flesh had putrefied, though the bones still held together in their proper relations. It was carried down a stadium and, reaching marshy ground, drifted ashore. This skeleton was as though deliberately prepared for such elementary teaching. And on another occasion we saw the skeleton of a brigand, lying on rising ground a little off the road. He had been killed by some traveller repelling his attack. The inhabitants would not bury him, glad enough to see his body consumed by the birds which, in a couple of days, ate his flesh, leaving the skeleton as if for demonstration. (tr. Charles Singer)

Prosestalmenon

penis_1

Καί τινι φίλῳ προελομένῳ παρὰ τὸ πρόσθεν ἔθος ἀποσχέσθαι τελέως ἀφροδισίων εἰς ὄγκον ἐπεδίδω τὸ αἰδοῖον ἐμφυσώμενον, ὡς ἀναγκασθῆναι ἀνακοινώσασθαί μοι περὶ τοῦ συμπτώματος. ἔφη γὰρ θαυμάζειν, ὅπως τῶδε μὲν τῷ ἀθλητῇ ῥυσσὸν καὶ προσεσταλμένον ἐστὶ τὸ αἰδοῖον ἐκ τῆς εὐταξίας, ἑαυτῷ δ’ ἀφ’ οὗ τοῦτ’ ἐνεστήσατο, τοὐναντίον συμβαίνει. τότε μὲν οὖν αὐτῷ συνεβούλευσα τὸ ἠθροισμένον ἐκκρῖναι σπέρμα, τοῦ λοιποῦ δὲ καὶ θεαμάτων καὶ διηγήσεως καὶ μνήμης ἐπεγείρειν δυναμένης εἰς ἀφροδίσια παντάπασιν εἴργειν ἑαυτόν. ὅσοι δ’ εὐθὺς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἢ ἀθλοῦντες ἢ φωνασκοῦντες ἄπειροι τῶν ἀφροδισίων διετέλεσαν, εἴρξαντες παντάπασιν ἑαυτοὺς ἁπάσης ἐννοίας τε καὶ φαντασίας τοιαύτης, ἰσχνὰ καὶ ῥυσσὰ τοῖς τῶν γερόντων ὁμοίως αὐτοῖς γίνεται τὰ αἰδοῖα. πρὸς γὰρ τοῖς ἄλλοις κᾀκεῖνο συμβαίνει τοῖς ἐν νέοτητι κατὰ τὸν πρῶτον χρόνον ἀφροδισίοις πολλοῖς χρησαμένοις, εὐρυνομένων τῶν ἐν τούτοις τοῖς τόποις ἀγγείων, εὔρουν τε γίγνεσθαι πρὸς αὐτὸ τὸ αἷμα καὶ τὴν ὀρεκτικὴν δύναμιν τῶν ἀφροδισίων αὐξάνεσθαι, κατὰ τὸν κοινὸν λόγον ἁπασῶν τῶν δυνάμεων, ὃν καὶ Πλάτων ἔγραψε, τὴν μὲν ἡσυχίαν ἐκλύειν λέγων, τὴν δ’ ἐν τοῖς οἰκείοις ἔργοις διατριβὴν αὐξάνειν τὴν ῥώμην. οὕτως μὲν οὖν καὶ οἱ τιτθοὶ ταῖς μὲν μηδέποτε κυησάσαις προσεσταλμένοι διαμένουσι, ταῖς δὲ μετὰ τὸ κυῆσαι θηλαζούσαις παιδία μέγιστοι γίγνονται, καὶ διαμένουσί γε γάλα παρέχοντες, ἄχρις ἂν θηλάζωσιν, παυομέναις δὲ τοῦ θηλάζειν τὰ παιδία καὶ ἡ τοῦ γάλακτος ἐν τοῖς τιτθοῖς γένεσις οὐ μετὰ πολὺ παύεται.
(Galenus, De Locis Affectis 8.450-452K)

A friend of mine who decided, contrary to his previous habit, to abstain completely from sex, saw his penis grow and swell to such an extent that he was forced to consult me on the matter. He said he was surprised that athletes had a shriveled, contracted member because of their temperance, whereas he, since he had adopted this regime, experienced the opposite. So I advised him to ejaculate the accumulated sperm, and from then on to avoid any spectacles, stories or memories whatsoever that might cause his arousal. With those who have been strangers to sexual pleasure from the start, be they athletes or singers, and who steer clear of all thoughts and phantasies of that kind, the penis grows thin and shriveled, similar to the genitals of old men; because, apart from other consequences, what happens to those who from the earliest days of their youth have had lots of sex, is that the blood vessels in those regions are extended, the blood flows more easily to the penis, and the desire for intercourse accumulates in force. The same thing happens to all faculties, as Plato too proclaimed when he wrote that rest weakens the body’s strength, while the exercise of its proper functions increases it. That’s why the chest of women who have never given birth remains flat and flaccid, whereas women who, having delivered, suckle their children, develop very large breasts which continue to provide milk for as long as they breastfeed, and stop producing it very soon after this period is concluded. (tr. David Bauwens)

Teleōtaton

ibm-marble-1-320

Καθάπερ οὖν ἄνθρωπος ἁπάντων ζῴων ἐστὶ τὸ τελεώτατον, οὕτως ἐν αὐτῷ τούτῳ πάλιν ἀνὴρ γυναικὸς <τελεώτερος>. ἡ δ’ αἰτία τῆς τελειότητος ἡ τῆς θερμότητος ὑπεροχὴ, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι πρῶτον ὄργανον τῆς φύσεως. ἐν οἷς οὖν ἐλλιπέστερον, ἐν τούτοις ἀναγκαῖον ἀτελέστερον εἶναι καὶ τὸ δημιούργημα. οὔκουν θαυμαστὸν οὐδὲν, εἰ τὸ θῆλυ τοῦ ἄῤῥενος εἰς τοσοῦτον ἀτελέστερον, εἰς ὅσον ψυχρότερον. ὥσπερ οὖν ἀτελεῖς ἔσχεν ὀφθαλμοὺς ὁ ἀσπάλαξ, οὐ μὴν οὕτω γε ἀτελεῖς, ὡς οἷς οὐδ’ ὅλως ἐστὶ ζώοις οὐδ’ ὑπογραφή τις αὐτῶν, οὕτω καὶ γυνὴ τοῖς γεννητικοῖς μορίοις ἀνδρὸς ἀτελεστέρα· διεπλάσθη μὲν γὰρ ἔνδον, αὐτῆς ἔτι κυουμένης, τὰ μόρια, προκύψαι δὲ καὶ ἀνατεῖλαι πρὸς τοὐκτὸς ἀῤῥωστίᾳ θερμότητος οὐ δυνάμενα τὸ μὲν διαπλαττόμενον αὐτὸ ζῶον ἀτελέστερον ἀπειργάσατο τοῦ πάντη τελείου, τῷ δ’ ὅλῳ γένει χρείαν οὐ σμικρὰν παρέσχεν, ἔδει γὰρ εἶναί τι καὶ θῆλυ. μὴ γὰρ δὴ νομίσῃς, ὡς ἑκὼν ἄν ποτε τὸ ἥμισυ μέρος ὅλου τοῦ γένους ἡμῶν ὁ δημιουργὸς ἀτελὲς ἀπειργάσατο καὶ οἷον ἀνάπηρον, εἰ μή τις κᾀκ τούτου τοῦ πηρώματος ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι χρεία μεγάλη.
(Galen, De Usu Partium 14.6)

Now just as mankind is the most perfect of all animals, so within mankind the man is more perfect than the woman, and the reason for his perfection is his excess of heat, for heat is Nature’s primary instrument. Hence in those animals that have less of it, her workmanship is necessarily more imperfect, and so it is no wonder that the female is less perfect than the male by as much as she is colder than he. In fact, just as the mole has imperfect eyes, though certainly not so imperfect as they are in those animals that do not have any trace of them at all, so too woman is less perfect than the man in respect of the generative parts. For the parts were formed within her when she was still a foetus, but could not because of the defect in the heat emerge and project on the outside, and this, though making the animal itself that was being formed less perfect than one that is complete in all respects, provided no small advantage for the race; for there needs must be a female. Indeed, you ought not to think that our Creator would purposely make half the whole race imperfect and, as it were, mutilated, unless there was to be some great advantage in such a mutilation. (tr. Margaret Tallmadge May)

Apōleia

Ταύτας, ἔφην, ἐγὼ παρὰ τοῦ πατρὸς λαβὼν τὰς ἐντολὰς ἄχρι δεῦρο διαφυλάττω, μήτ’ ἀφ’ αἱρέσεώς τινος ἐμαυτὸν ἀναγορεύσας, ὧν σπουδῇ πάσῃ ἀκριβῆ τὴν ἐξέτασιν ἔχω, ἀνέκπληκτός τε πρὸς τὰ κατὰ τὸν βίον ὁσημέραι συμπίπτοντα διαμένων, ὥσπερ ἑώρων τὸν πατέρα. οὔτ’ οὖν ἀπώλειά τινος ἱκανὴ λυπῆσαί με, πλὴν εἰ παντελῶς ἀπολέσαιμι τὰ κτήματα (τοῦτο γὰρ οὐδέπω πεπείραμαι), δόξης τε καὶ τιμῆς ὁ πατὴρ εἴθισέ με καταφρονεῖν ἀλήθειαν μόνην τιμῶντα. λυπουμένους δ’ ὁρῶ τοὺς πολλούς, ὅταν ἠτιμάσθαι δοκῶσιν ὑπό τινος, ἢ χρημάτων ἀπωλείᾳ. κατὰ τοῦτ’ οὖν, ἔφην, οὐδὲ λυπούμενον εἰδές μέ ποτε, <εἴ γε> μήτε χρημάτων ἀπώλεια συνέπεσέ μοι μέχρι δεῦρο τηλικαύτη τὸ μέγεθος, ὡς μηκέτ’ ἔχειν ἐκ τῶν ὑπολοίπων ἐπιμελεῖσθαι τοῦ σώματος ὑγιεινῶς, μήτ’ ἀτιμία τις, <ὡς> ὁρῶ <τοὺς> τοῦ συνεδρίου τῆς τιμῆς ἀφαιρεθέντας. εἰ δέ τινας ἀκούσαιμι ψέγειν με, τούς μ’ ἐπαινοῦντας αὐτοῖς ἀντιτίθημι καὶ νομίζω τὸ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ἐπαινοῦντας ἐπιθυμεῖν ἔχειν ἐοικέναι τῷ τὰ πάντα ἔχειν ἐθέλειν κτήματα.
(Galen, De Propriorum Animi Cuiuslibet Affectuum Dignotione et Curatione 8.8-9)

These, I said, were the injunctions I received from my father, and I have observed them up to the present day. I did not proclaim myself a member of any of those sects of which, with all earnestness, I made a careful examination, but I continued undaunted in the face of day by day occurrences throughout my life, just as I had seen my father do. No loss was enough to cause me grief. I do not know if I would grieve if I should lose all my possessions, for I have never yet experienced such a large loss. My father also accustomed me to look with scorn on glory and honor and to hold only the truth in esteem. But I see many men grieving when they think that someone has dishonored them or because of the loss of money. In a matter of this sort, you would never see me grieving, unless I incurred a loss of money so great that I was no longer able with what was left to take care of my bodily health, or unless I incurred some dishonor such as I see in the case of those who have been deprived of the honor of their seats in the Council. If I should hear that some men find fault with me, I oppose to them those who praise me, and I consider that the desire to have all men praise me is like the desire to possess all things. (tr. Paul W. Harkins)