Loutra

John Reinhard Weguelin, The bath, 1884
John Reinhard Weguelin, The bath (1884)

Οἷα δὲ καὶ τὰ λουτρὰ αὐταῖς· οἶκοι τεχνητοί, συμπαγεῖς καὶ περιφορητοί, διαφανεῖ σινδόνι καλυπτόμενοι, καθέδραι τε ἐπίχρυσοι, ἀργυρόηλοι καὶ σκεύη μυρία χρυσοῦ τε καὶ ἀργύρου, τὰ μὲν εἰς προπόσεις, τὰ δὲ εἰς τροφάς, τὰ δὲ εἰς τὸ λούσασθαι περιφερόμενα· ναὶ μὴν καὶ ἐσχαρίδες ἀνθράκων· εἰς τοσοῦτον γὰρ ἀκρασίας ἥκουσιν ὡς δειπνεῖν καὶ μεθύειν ἔτι λουομένας· τά τε ἀργυρώματα, μεθ’ ὧν ἐμπομπεύουσιν, ἀπειροκάλως ἐν τοῖς βαλανείοις προτιθέασι· τάχα μέν που καὶ τὸν πλοῦτον δι’ ἀλαζονείαν περιττήν, μάλιστα δὲ τὴν αὐτεξούσιον ἀπαιδευσίαν, καθ’ ἣν κατηγοροῦσιν ἀνάνδρων ἀνδρῶν πρὸς γυναικῶν κεκρατημένων, ἐπιδεικνύμεναι ἐλέγχουσαί τε ἁμῇ γέ πῃ σφᾶς αὐτὰς μὴ οἵας τε εἶναι συνεῖναι καὶ δίχα τῶν σκευῶν τῶν πολλῶν ἱδροῦν δύνασθαι· καὶ γὰρ αἱ πενόμεναι τῆς πομπῆς μὴ μεταλαμβάνουσαι τῶν ἴσων κοινωνοῦσι λουτρῶν. ἔχει δὲ ἄρα ὁ ῥύπος τῆς περιουσίας βλασφημίας περιβολὴν πολλήν. τούτῳ καθάπερ δελέατι ἀγκιστρεύουσιν τοὺς ἀθλίους κεχηνότας ἐπὶ τὰς μαρμαρυγὰς τοῦ χρυσίου· καὶ γὰρ ἐκπλήττουσαι τούτῳ τοὺς ἀπειροκάλους θαυμάζειν σφᾶς τεχνῶνται τοὺς ἐραστάς, οἳ μετ’ ὀλίγον αὐταῖς ἐνυβρίζουσι γυμναῖς. καὶ δὴ τοῖς μὲν ἀνδράσι τοῖς σφῶν οὐκ ἂν ἀποδύσαιντο προσποίητον αἰσχύνης ἀξιοπιστίαν μνώμεναι, ἔξεστι δὲ τοῖς βουλομένοις τῶν ἄλλων τὰς οἴκοι κατακλείστους γυμνὰς ἐν τοῖς βαλανείοις θεάσασθαι· ἐνταῦθα γὰρ ἀποδύσασθαι τοῖς θεαταῖς ὥσπερ καπήλοις σωμάτων οὐκ αἰσχύνονται. ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν Ἡσίοδος “μηδὲ γυναικείῳ λουτρῷ χρόα φαιδρύνεσθαι” παραινεῖ. κοινὰ δὲ ἀνέῳκται ἀνδράσιν ὁμοῦ καὶ γυναιξὶ τὰ βαλανεῖα, κἀντεῦθεν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀκρασίαν ἀποδύονται· ἐκ τοῦ γὰρ εἰσορᾶν γίνεται ἀνθρώποις ἐρᾶν, ὥσπερ ἀποκλυζομένης τῆς αἰδοῦς αὐτοῖς κατὰ τὰ λουτρά. αἳ δὲ μὴ εἰς τοσοῦτον ἀπερυθριῶσαι τοὺς μὲν ὀθνείους ἀποκλείουσιν, ἰδίοις δὲ οἰκέταις συλλούονται καὶ δούλοις ἀποδύονται γυμναὶ καὶ ἀνατρίβονται ὑπ’ αὐτῶν, ἐξουσίαν δοῦσαι τῷ κατεπτηχότι τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τὸ ἀδεὲς τῆς ψηλαφήσεως· οἱ γὰρ παρεισαγόμενοι παρὰ τὰ λουτρὰ ταῖς δεσποίναις γυμναῖς μελέτην ἴσχουσιν ἀποδύσασθαι πρὸς τόλμαν ἐπιθυμίας ἔθει πονηρῷ περιγράφοντες τὸν φόβον. καὶ οἱ μὲν παλαιοὶ τῶν ἀθλητῶν γυμνὸν δεικνύναι τὸν ἄνδρα αἰδούμενοι ἐν διαζώσμασι τὴν ἀγωνίαν ἐκτελοῦντες τὸ αἰδῆμον ἐφύλαττον· αἳ δὲ ἀποδυσάμεναι ἅμα τῷ χιτῶνι καὶ τὴν αἰδῶ φαίνεσθαι μὲν βούλονται καλαί, ἄκουσαι δ’ ὅμως ἐλέγχονται κακαί· καὶ γὰρ δι’ αὐτοῦ καταφαίνεται μάλιστα τοῦ σώματος τὸ μάχλον τῆς ἐπιθυμίας, καθάπερ τοῖς ὑδεριῶσιν τὸ περιστεγόμενον τῆς ἐπιφανείας ὑγρόν· τὸ νοσοῦν δὲ ἀμφοῖν ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως γνωρίζεται. χρὴ τοίνυν τοὺς ἄνδρας γενναῖον ἀληθείας ὑπόδειγμα ταῖς γυναιξὶ γινομένους αἰσχύνεσθαι τὰς μετ’ αὐτῶν ἀποδύσεις καὶ φυλάττεσθαι τὰς ὄψεις τὰς ὀλισθηράς· ὁ γὰρ ἐμβλέψας, φησί, περιεργότερον ἤδη ἥμαρτεν. οἴκοι μὲν οὖν τοὺς γονεῖς καὶ τοὺς οἰκέτας αἰδεῖσθαι χρή, ἐν δὲ ταῖς ὁδοῖς τοὺς ἀπαντῶντας, ἐν δὲ τοῖς λουτροῖς τὰς γυναῖκας, ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἐρημίαις ἑαυτούς, πανταχοῦ δὲ τὸν λόγον, ὅς ἐστι πανταχοῦ, καὶ ἐγένετο ἄνευ αὐτοῦ οὐδὲ ἕν. οὕτως γὰρ μόνως ἀπτώς τις διαμενεῖ, εἰ πάντοτε αὐτῷ συμπαρεῖναι νομίζοι τὸν θεόν.
(Clement of Alexandria, Paed. 3.31-33)

And of what sort are their baths? Houses skilfully constructed, compact, portable, transparent, covered with fine linen. And gold-plated chairs, and silver ones, too, and ten thousand vessels of gold and silver, some for drinking, some for eating, some for bathing, are carried about with them. Besides these, there are even braziers of coals; for they have arrived at such a pitch of self-indulgence, that they sup and get drunk while bathing. And articles of silver with which they make a show, they ostentatiously set out in the baths, and thus display perchance their wealth out of excessive pride, but chiefly the capricious ignorance, through which they brand effeminate men, who have been vanquished by women; proving at least that they themselves cannot meet and cannot sweat without a multitude of vessels, although poor women who have no display equally enjoy their baths. The dirt of wealth, then, has an abundant covering of censure. With this, as with a bait, they hook the miserable creatures that gape at the glitter of gold. For dazzling thus those fond of display, they artfully try to win the admiration of their lovers, who after a little insult them naked. They will scarce strip before their own husbands affecting a plausible pretence of modesty; but any others who wish, may see them at home shut up naked in their baths. For there they are not ashamed to strip before spectators, as if exposing their persons for sale. But Hesiod advises
“Not to wash the skin in the women’s bath.” [Erga kai Hēmerai 753]
The baths are opened promiscuously to men and women; and there they strip for licentious indulgence (for from looking, men get to loving [Agathon, fr. 29]), as if their modesty had been washed away in the bath. Those who have not become utterly destitute of modesty shut out strangers; but bathe with their own servants, and strip naked before their slaves, and are rubbed by them; giving to the crouching menial liberty to lust, by permitting fearless handling. For those who are introduced before their naked mistresses while in the bath, study to strip themselves in order to audacity in lust, casting off fear in consequence of the wicked custom. The ancient athletes, ashamed to exhibit a man naked, preserved their modesty by going through the contest in drawers; but these women, divesting themselves of their modesty along with their tunic, wish to appear beautiful, but contrary to their wish are simply proved to be wicked. For through the body itself the wantonness of lust shines clearly; as in the case of dropsical people, the water covered by the skin. Disease in both is known from the look. Men, therefore, affording to women a noble example of truth, ought to be ashamed at their stripping before them, and guard against these dangerous sights; for he who has looked curiously, it is said, has sinned already [Mt. 5:28]. At home, therefore, they ought to regard with modesty parents and domestics; in the ways, those they meet; in the baths, women; in solitude, themselves; and everywhere the Word, who is everywhere, and without Him was not anything [John 1:3]. For so only shall one remain without falling, if he regard God as ever present with him. (tr. William Wilson)

Infirmus

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Infirmorum cura ante omnia et super omnia adhibenda est, ut sicut revera Christo ita eis serviatur, quia ipse dixit: “infirmus fui, et visitastis me”, et: “quod fecistis uni de his minimis, mihi fecistis.” sed et ipsi infirmi considerent in honorem Dei sibi serviri, et non superfluitate sua contristent fratres suos servientes sibi; qui tamen patienter portandi sunt, quia de talibus copiosior mercis adquiritur. ergo cura maxima sit abbati, ne aliquam neglegentiam patiantur. quibus fratribus infirmis sit cella super se deputata et servitor timens Deum et diligens ac sollicitus. balnearum usus infirmis quotiens expedit offeratur, sanis autem et maxime iuvenibus tardius concedatur. sed et carnium esus infirmis omnimo debilibus pro reparatione concedatur; at ubi meliorati fuerint, a carnibus more solito omnes abstineant. curam autem maximam habeat abbas ne a cellarariis aut a servitoribus neglegantur infirmi; et ipsum respicit quidquid a discipulis delinquitur. licet ipsa natura humana trahatur ad misericordiam in his aetatibus, senum videlicet et infantum, tamen et regulæ auctoritas eis prospiciat. consideretur semper in eis inbecillitas et ullatenus eis districtio regulæ teneatur in alimentis; sed sit in eis pia consideratio et præveniant horas canonicas.
(Benedict of Nursia, Regula 36-37)

Before and above all things, care must be taken of the sick, that they be served in very truth as Christ is served; because He hath said, “I was sick and you visited Me” (Mt. 25:36). And “As long as you did it to one of these My least brethren, you did it to Me” (Mt. 25:40). But let the sick themselves also consider that they are served for the honor of God, and let them not grieve their brethren who serve them by unnecessary demands. These must, however, be patiently borne with, because from such as these a more bountiful reward is gained. Let the Abbot’s greatest concern, therefore, be that they suffer no neglect. Let a cell be set apart for the sick brethren, and a God-fearing, diligent, and careful attendant be appointed to serve them. Let the use of the bath be offered to the sick as often as it is useful, but let it be granted more rarely to the healthy and especially the young. Thus also let the use of meat be granted to the sick and to the very weak for their recovery. But when they have been restored let them all abstain from meat in the usual manner. But let the Abbot exercise the utmost care that the sick are not neglected by the Cellarer or the attendants, because whatever his disciples do amiss falleth back on him. Although human nature is of itself drawn to feel compassion for these life-periods, namely, old age and childhood, still, let the decree of the Rule make provision also for them. Let their natural weakness be always taken into account and let the strictness of the Rule not be kept with them in respect to food, but let there be a tender regard in their behalf and let them eat before regular hours. (tr. Boniface Verheyen)

Dialuesthai

marriage-420x420

Λύεται ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ γυναικὸς διὰ τοιαύτας αἰτίας· ἐὰν ἡ γυνὴ πορνεύσῃ· ἐὰν ἐπιβουλεύσηται οἱῳδήποτε τρόπῳ τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ, ἢ ἐπισταμένη ἑτέρους ἐπιβουλεύοντας, μὴ καταμηνύσῃ αὐτῷ· καὶ ἐὰν λωβή ἐστιν. ὁμοίως δὲ λύεται καὶ γυνὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς διὰ τοιαύτας αἰτίας· ἐὰν ἀδυνατήσῃ ὁ ἀνὴρ ἐπὶ τριετίᾳ ἀπὸ καιροῦ τοῦ συναλλάγματος τοῦ γαμικοῦ τῇ οἰκείᾳ μιγῆναι γυναικί· ἐὰν ἐπιβουλεύσηται οἱῳδήτινι τρόπῳ τῇ ζωῇ αὐτῆς, ἢ ἐπιστάμενος ἑτέρους ἐπιβουλεύοντας, μὴ καταμηνύσῃ αὐτῇ, καὶ ἐὰν λωβός ἐστιν· εἰ δὲ συμβῇ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἕνα μετὰ τὸν γάμον ἢ πρὸ τοῦ γάμου ὑπὸ δαίμονος κυριευθῆναι, τούτους ἐκ τῆς τοιαύτης αἰτίας ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων μὴ χωρίζεσθαι· ἄνευ τε τῶν αἰτιῶν τούτων τῶν γνωριζομένων, μὴ δύνασθαι ἀνδρόγυνον διαλύεσθαι κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον ὅτι, οὓς ὁ θεὸς ἔζευξεν, ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω.
(Ecloga 2.9.2-4)

A husband may divorce his wife on the following grounds: if his wife commits fornication; if she plots in any way against his life, or knows another who plots against him and does not inform him; and if she is a leper. Likewise, a wife may be separated from her husband on these grounds: if within three years of the marriage the husband is unable to have intercourse with his wife; if he plots in any way against her life, or knows another who plots against her and does not inform her; and if he is a leper. And if it should happen that either of them should after the marriage be possessed by a demon, they shall not be separated from one another due to such a cause. Except on these known grounds it is not possible to dissolve a marriage, for as it is written, ‘those whom God has joined let no man put asunder.’ [Matthew 19:6; Mark 10:9] (tr. Mike Humphreys)

Kladous

Pietro Lorenzetti - Entrata di Cristo in Gerusalemme 131x
Pietro Lorenzetti, Entrata di Cristo in Gerusalemme

Καὶ ὅτε ἤγγισαν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Βηθσφαγὴ πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀπέστειλεν δύο μαθητὰς λέγων αὐτοῖς, “πορεύθητε εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν ἀπέναντι ὑμῶν, καὶ εὐθέως εὑρήσετε ὄνον δεδεμένην καὶ πῶλον μετ’ αὐτῆς· λύσαντες ἀγάγετέ μοι. καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι ἐρεῖτε ὅτι ὁ κύριος αὐτῶν χρείαν ἔχει· εὐθέως δὲ ἀποστελεῖ αὐτούς.” τοῦτο δὲ ὅλον γέγονεν ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος “εἴπατε τῇ θυγατρὶ Σιών· ἰδού, ὁ βασιλεύς σου ἔρχεταί σοι πραῢς καὶ ἐπιβεβηκὼς ἐπὶ ὄνον καὶ πῶλον υἱὸν ὑποζυγίου.” πορευθέντες δὲ οἱ μαθηταὶ καὶ ποιήσαντες καθὼς προσέταξεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἤγαγον τὴν ὄνον καὶ τὸν πῶλον, καὶ ἐπέθηκαν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπεκάθισεν ἐπάνω αὐτῶν. ὁ δὲ πλεῖστος ὄχλος ἔστρωσαν ἑαυτῶν τὰ ἱμάτια ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, ἄλλοι δὲ ἔκοπτον κλάδους ἀπὸ τῶν δένδρων καὶ ἐστρώννυον ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ. οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι οἱ προάγοντες καὶ οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες ἔκραζον λέγοντες “ὡσαννὰ τῷ υἱῷ Δαυίδ· εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις.” καὶ εἰσελθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἐσείσθη πᾶσα ἡ πόλις λέγουσα, “τίς ἐστιν οὗτος;” οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι ἔλεγον· “οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὁ προφήτης ὁ ἀπὸ Ναζαρὲτ τῆς Γαλιλαίας.”
(Matthew 21.1-11)

And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them, and brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. (King James Version)