Plunon

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Ἀμήχανον ἦν μύξας μὴ ῥεῖν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τοιοῦτον ἔχοντος τὸ σύγκραμα· διὰ τοῦτο χεῖρας ἐποίησεν ἡ φύσις καὶ αὐτὰς τὰς ῥῖνας ὡς σωλῆνας πρὸς τὸ ἐκδιδόναι τὰ ὑγρά. ἂν οὖν ἀναρροφῇ τις αὐτάς, λέγω ὅτι οὐ ποιεῖ ἔργον ἀνθρωπικόν. ἀμήχανον ἦν μὴ πηλοῦσθαι τοὺς πόδας μηδὲ ὅλως μολύνεσθαι διὰ τοιούτων τινῶν πορευομένους· διὰ τοῦτο ὕδωρ παρεσκεύασεν, διὰ τοῦτο χεῖρας. ἀμήχανον ἦν ἀπὸ τοῦ τρώγειν μὴ ῥυπαρόν τι προσμένειν τοῖς ὀδοῦσι· διὰ τοῦτο “πλῦνον” φησίν “τοὺς ὀδόντας.” διὰ τί; ἵν’ ἄνθρωπος ᾖς καὶ μὴ θηρίον μηδὲ συίδιον. ἀμήχανον μὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱδρῶτος καὶ τῆς κατὰ τὴν ἐσθῆτα συνοχῆς ὑπολείπεσθαί τι περὶ τὸ σῶμα ῥυπαρὸν καὶ δεόμενον ἀποκαθάρσεως· διὰ τοῦτο ὕδωρ, ἔλαιον, χεῖρες, ὀθόνιον, ξύστρα, νίτρον, ἔσθ’ ὅθ’ ἡ ἄλλη πᾶσα παρασκευὴ πρὸς τὸ καθῆραι αὐτό. οὔ· ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν χαλκεὺς ἐξιώσει τὸ σιδήριον καὶ ὄργανα πρὸς τοῦτο ἕξει κατεσκευασμένα καὶ τὸ πινάκιον αὐτὸς σὺ πλυνεῖς, ὅταν μέλλῃς ἐσθίειν, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖς παντελῶς ἀκάθαρτος καὶ ῥυπαρός· τὸ σωμάτιον δ’ οὐ πλυνεῖς οὐδὲ καθαρὸν ποιήσεις; — “διὰ τί;” φησίν. — πάλιν ἐρῶ σοι· πρῶτον μὲν ἵνα τὰ ἀνθρώπου ποιῇς, εἶτα ἵνα μὴ ἀνιᾷς τοὺς ἐντυγχάνοντας.
(Arrian, Epict. Diatr. 4.11.9-14)

It is impossible that there should not be some flow of mucus from a human being, since he is constituted in the way that he is. For that reason, nature has created hands, and has made our nostrils themselves like tubes to carry away the fluids. So if anyone sniffs them up again, I say that he isn’t acting as is appropriate for a human being. It was impossible that our feet should not get muddy, or dirty at all, when we pass through filth of that kind; nature has thus provided us with water and with hands. It was impossible that some dirt should not get left behind on our teeth when we’ve eaten; and so nature says to us, “Clean your teeth.” Why? So that you may be a human being, and not a wild beast or a pig. It was impossible that through our sweat and the rubbing of our clothes, some uncleanness should not be left behind on our body and need to be cleaned off; for this reason, we have water, oil, hands, a towel, a scraper, and everything else that is used for cleaning the body. Not in your case? But a smith will remove the rust from his iron, and has tools made for that purpose, and you yourself will wash your plate before you eat, unless you’re irredeemably dirty and unclean; and yet when it comes to your poor body, you don’t want to wash it and make it clean? “Why should I?”, the man says. I’ll tell you again: in the first place, to act as is appropriate for a human being, and secondly, so as not to disgust those whom you meet. (tr. Robin Hard)

Apomachoumenoi

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Ἐνδένδε ὁρμηθέντες ἔπλωον ἀκραεί, καὶ διελθόντες σταδίους ἐς πεντακοσίους ὡρμίζοντο πρὸς ποταμῷ χειμαρρόῳ· Τόμηρος οὔνομα ἦν τῷ ποταμῷ. καὶ λίμνη ἦν ἐπὶ τῇσιν ἐκβολῇσι τοῦ ποταμοῦ, τὰ δὲ βραχέα τὰ πρὸς τῷ αἰγιαλῷ ἐπῴκεον ἄνθρωποι ἐν καλύβῃσι πνιγηρῇσι. καὶ οὗτοι ὡς προσπλώοντας εἶδον, ἐθάμβησάν τε καὶ παρατείναντες σφᾶς παρὰ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν ἐτάχθησαν ὡς ἀπομαχεόμενοι πρὸς τοὺς ἐκβαίνοντας. λόγχας δὲ ἐφόρεον παχέας, μέγαθος ὡς ἑξαπήχεας· ἀκωκὴ δὲ οὐκ ἐπῆν σιδηρέη, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὀξὺ αὐτοῖσι πεπυρακτωμένον τωὐτὸ ἐποίεε. πλῆθος δὲ ἦσαν ὡς ἑξακόσιοι. καὶ τούτους Νέαρχος ὡς ὑπομένοντάς τε καὶ παρατεταγμένους κατεῖδε, τὰς μὲν νέας ἀνακωχεύειν κελεύει ἐντὸς βέλεος, ὡς τὰ τοξεύματα ἐς τὴν γῆν ἀπ᾽ αὐτέων ἐξικνέεσθαι· αἱ γὰρ τῶν βαρβάρων λόγχαι ἀγχέμαχοι μὲν ἄφοβοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἐσακοντίζεσθαι ἦσαν. αὐτὸς δὲ τῶν στρατιωτέων ὅσοι αὐτοὶ τε κουφότατοι καὶ κουφότατα ὡπλισμένοι τοῦ τε νέειν δαημονέστατοι, τούτους δὲ ἐκνήξασθαι κελεύει ἀπὸ συνθήματος. πρόσταγμα δέ σφισιν ἦν, ὅκως τις ἐκνηξάμενος σταίη ἐν τῷ ὕδατι, προσμένειν τὸν παραστάτην οἱ ἐσόμενον, μηδὲ ἐμβάλλειν πρόσθε ἐς τοὺς βαρβάρους, πρὶν ἐπὶ τριῶν ἐς βάθος ταχθῆναι τὴν φάλαγγα· τότε δὲ δρόμῳ ἐπιέναι ἀλαλάζοντας. ἅμα δὲ ἐρρίπτεον ἑωυτοὺς οἱ ἐπὶ τῷδε τεταγμένοι ἐκ τῶν νεῶν ἐς τὸν πόντον, καὶ ἐνήχοντο ὀξέως, καὶ ἵσταντο ἐν κόσμῳ, καὶ φάλαγγα ἐκ σφῶν ποιησάμενοι δρόμῳ ἐπῄεσαν αὐτοὶ τε ἀλαλάζοντες τῷ Ἐνυαλίῳ καὶ οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν νεῶν συνεπήχεον, τοξεύματά τε καὶ ἀπὸ μηχανέων βέλεα ἐφέρετο ἐς τοὺς βαρβάρους. οἳ δὲ τήν τε λαμπρότητα τῶν ὅπλων ἐκπλαγέντες καὶ τῆς ἐφόδου τὴν ὀξύτητα καὶ πρὸς τῶν τοξευμάτων τε καὶ τῶν ἄλλων βελέων βαλλόμενοι, οἷα δὴ ἡμίγυμνοι ἄνθρωποι, οὐδὲ ὀλίγον ἐς ἀλκὴν τραπέντες ἐγκλίνουσι. καὶ οἱ μὲν αὐτοῦ φεύγοντες ἀποθνήσκουσιν, οἳ δὲ καὶ ἁλίσκονται· ἔστι δὲ οἳ καὶ διέφυγον ἐς τὰ οὔρεα. ἦσαν δὲ οἱ ἁλόντες τά τε ἄλλα δασέες καὶ τὰς κεφαλάς, καὶ τοὺς ὄνυχας θηριώδεες· τοῖσι γὰρ δὴ ὄνυξιν ὅσα σιδήρῳ διαχρᾶσθαι ἐλέγοντο καὶ τοὺς ἰχθύας τούτοισι παρασχίζοντες κατεργάζεσθαι καὶ τῶν ξύλων ἃσαμαλθακώτερα. τὰ δὲ ἄλλα τοῖαι λίθοισι τοῖσιν ὀξέσιν ἔκοπτον· σίδηρος γὰρ αὐτοῖσιν οὐκ ἦν. ἐσθῆτα δὲ ἐφόρεον δέρματα θηρήια, οἳ δὲ καὶ ἰχθύων τῶν μεγάλων τὰ παχέα.
(Arrian, Ind. 24)

Thence they set sail and progressed with a favouring wind; and after a passage of five hundred stades the anchored by a torrent, which was called Tomerus. There was a lagoon at the mouths of the river, and the depressions near the bank were inhabited by natives in stifling cabins. These seeing the convoy sailing up were astounded, and lining along the shore stood ready to repel any who should attempt a landing. They carried thick spears, about six cubits long; these had no iron tip, but the same result was obtained by hardening the point with fire. They were in number about six hundred. Nearchus observed these evidently standing firm and drawn up in order, and ordered the ships to hold back within range, so that their missiles might reach the shore; for the natives’ spears, which looked stalwart, were good for close fighting, but had no terrors against a volley. Then Nearchus took the lightest and lightest-armed troops, such as were also the best swimmers, and bade them swim off as soon as the word was given. Their orders were that, as soon as any swimmer found bottom, he should await his mate, and not attack the natives till they had their formation three deep; but then they were to raise their battle cry and charge at the double. On the word, those detailed for this service dived from the ships into the sea, and swam smartly, and took up their formation in orderly manner, and having made a phalanx, charged, raising, for their part, their battle cry to the God of War, and those on shipboard raised the cry along with them; and arrows and missiles from the engines were hurled against the natives. They, astounded at the flash of the armour, and the swiftness of the charge, and attacked by showers of arrows and missiles, half naked as they were, never stopped to resist but gave way. Some were killed in flight; others were captured; but some escaped into the hills. Those captured were hairy, not only their heads but the rest of their bodies; their nails were rather like beasts’ claws; they used their nails (according to report) as if they were iron tools; with these they tore asunder their fishes, and even the less solid kinds of wood; everything else they cleft with sharp stones; for iron they did not possess. For clothing they wore skins of animals, some even the thick skins of the larger fishes. (tr. Ernest Iliff Robson)

Paidopoiēsomenos

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Ἐνταῦθα λέγουσιν ὅτι Ἀτροπάτης ὁ τῆς Μηδίας σατράπης γυναῖκας ἑκατὸν αὐτῷ ἔδωκεν, ταύτας φάσκων εἶναι τῶν Ἀμαζόνων, καὶ ταύτας σκευῇ ἀνδρῶν ἱππέων ἐσταλμένας, πλήν γε δὴ ὅτι πελέκεις ἀντὶ δοράτων ἐφόρουν καὶ ἀντὶ ἀσπίδων πέλτας· οἱ δὲ καὶ τὸν μαστὸν λέγουσιν ὅτι μείονα εἶχον τὸν δεξιόν, ὃν δὴ καὶ ἔξω εἶχον ἐν ταῖς μάχαις. ταύτας μὲν δὴ ἀπαλλάξαι τῆς στρατιᾶς Ἀλέξανδρον, μή τι νεωτερισθείη κατ᾽ αὐτὰς ἐς ὕβριν πρὸς τῶν Μακεδόνων ἢ βαρβάρων· κελεῦσαι δὲ ἀπαγγεῖλαι πρὸς τὴν βασίλισσαν σφῶν ὅτι αὐτὸς ἥξει πρὸς αὐτὴν παιδοποιησόμενος.
(Arrian, Anabasis Alexandrou 7.13.2-3)

There they say that Atropates the satrap of Media handed over to him a hundred women, saying that they were of the Amasons ; they were equipped like cavalry troopers, except that they carried axes
instead of spears, and small targets instead of shields. Some say that they had the right breast smaller, and that this was uncovered in battle. Alexander sent them away from the army, lest they should
meet any roughness from the Macedonians or foreign troops; but he bade them announce to their queen that he was coming to see her in hope of offspring. (tr. Ernest Iliff Robson)

Katakekrisai

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Διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ Ἀγριππῖνος τί ἔλεγεν; ὅτι “ἐγὼ ἐμαυτῷ ἐμπόδιος οὐ γίνομαι.” ἀπηγγέλη αὐτῷ ὅτι “κρίνῃ ἐν συγκλήτῳ.” — “ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ. ἀλλὰ ἦλθεν ἡ πέμπτη” (ταύτῃ δ’ εἰώθει γυμνασάμενος ψυχρολουτρεῖν)· “ἀπέλθωμεν καὶ γυμνασθῶμεν.” γυμνασαμένῳ λέγει τις αὐτῷ ἐλθὼν ὅτι “κατακέκρισαι.” — “φυγῇ,” φησίν, “ἢ θανάτῳ;” — “φυγῇ.” — “τὰ ὑπάρχοντα τί;” — “οὐκ ἀφῃρέθη.” — “εἰς Ἀρίκειαν οὖν ἀπελθόντες ἀριστήσωμεν.” — τοῦτ’ ἔστι μεμελετηκέναι ἃ δεῖ μελετᾶν, ὄρεξιν ἔκκλισιν ἀκώλυτα ἀπερίπτωτα παρεσκευακέναι. ἀποθανεῖν με δεῖ. εἰ ἤδη, ἀποθνῄσκω· κἂν μετ’ ὀλίγον, νῦν ἀριστῶ τῆς ὥρας ἐλθούσης, εἶτα τότε τεθνήξομαι. πῶς; ὡς προσήκει τὸν τὰ ἀλλότρια ἀποδιδόντα.
(Arrian, Epict. Diatr. 1.1.28-32)

Wherefore, what was it that Agrippinus used to remark? “I am not standing in my own way.” Word was brought him, “Your case is being tried in the Senate.” — “Good luck betide! But it is the fifth hour now” (he was in the habit of taking his exercise and then a cold bath at that hour); “let us be off and take our exercise.” After he had finished his exercise someone came and told him, “You have been condemned.” — “To exile,” says he, “or to death?” — “To exile.” — “What about my property?” — “It has not been confiscated.” — “Well then, let us go to Aricia and take our lunch there.” This is what it means to have rehearsed the lessons one ought to rehearse, to have set desire and aversion free from every hindrance and made them proof against chance. I must die. If forthwith, I die; and if a little later, I will take lunch now, since the hour for lunch has come, and afterwards I will die at the appointed time. How? As becomes the man who is giving back that which was another’s. (tr. William Abbott Oldfather)

Diamartiai

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Justus Sustermans, The Family of Darius in Front of Alexander

Ταῦτα μὲν Πτολεμαῖος καὶ Ἀριστόβουλος λέγουσι· λόγος δὲ ἔχει καὶ αὐτὸν Ἀλέξανδρον τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ ἐλθεῖν εἴσω ξὺν Ἡφαιστίωνι μόνῳ τῶν ἑταίρων· καὶ τὴν μητέρα τὴν Δαρείου ἀμφιγνοήσασαν ὅστις ὁ βασιλεὺς εἴη αὐτοῖν, ἐστάλθαι γὰρ ἄμφω τῷ αὐτῷ κόσμῳ, τὴν δὲ Ἡφαιστίωνι προσελθεῖν καὶ προσκυνῆσαι, ὅτι μείζων ἐφάνη ἐκεῖνος. ὡς δὲ ὁ Ἡφαιστίων τε ὀπίσω ὑπεχώρησε καί τις τῶν ἀμφ’ αὐτήν, τὸν Ἀλέξανδρον δείξας, ἐκεῖνον ἔφη εἶναι Ἀλέξανδρον, τὴν μὲν καταιδεισθεῖσαν τῇ διαμαρτίᾳ ὑποχωρεῖν, Ἀλέξανδρον δὲ οὐ φάναι αὐτὴν ἁμαρτεῖν· καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνον εἶναι Ἀλέξανδρον. καὶ ταῦτα ἐγὼ οὔθ’ ὡς ἀληθῆ οὔτε ὡς πάντῃ ἄπιστα ἀνέγραψα. ἀλλ’ εἴτε οὕτως ἐπράχθη, ἐπαινῶ Ἀλέξανδρον τῆς τε ἐς τὰς γυναῖκας κατοικτίσεως καἱ τῆς ἐς τὸν ἑταῖρον πίστεως καὶ τιμῆς· εἴτε πιθανὸς δοκεῖ τοῖς συγγράψασιν Ἀλέξανδρος ὡς καὶ ταῦτα ἂν πράξας καὶ εἰπών, καὶ ἐπὶ τῷδε ἐπαινῶ Ἀλέξανδρον.
(Arrian, Anabasis Alexandrou 2.12.6-7)

This is the account of Ptolemaeus and Aristobulus; there is, however, a story that next day Alexander himself visited the tent with Hephaestion and no other companion; and Darius’ mother, not knowing which of the two was the king, as both were dressed alike, approached Hephaestion and did him obeisance, since he appeared the taller. Hephaestion drew back, and one of her attendants pointed to Alexander and said he was the king; she drew back in confusion at her mistake, but Alexander remarked that she had made no mistake, for Hephaestion was also an Alexander. I have written this down without asserting its truth or total incredibility. If it really happened, I approve of Alexander’s compassion for the women and of the trust and honour bestowed on his companion. If the historians of Alexander think it plausible that he would have acted and spoken in this way, I approve of Alexander on that ground too. (tr. Peter Astbury Brunt)