This is part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

Nil equidem inquiram, nec quae celare parabis
insequar, et falli muneris instar erit.
si tamen in media deprensa tenebere culpa,
et fuerint oculis probra videnda meis,
quae bene visa mihi fuerint, bene visa negato —
concedent verbis lumina nostra tuis.
prona tibi vinci cupientem vincere palma est,
sit modo ‘non feci!’ dicere lingua memor.
cum tibi contingat verbis superare duobus,
etsi non causa, iudice vince tuo!
(Ovid, Am. 3.14.41-50)

For my part I’’ll not enquire, not seek to know what you hide, and treat deception as a gift. But if I catch you in the guilty act, and your shame’’s visible to my eyes, deny I’’ve really seen what I’’ve really seen.– I’’ll accept your words and not my sight. It’’s easy for you to win the palm if I want to be beaten, just remember to say the words: ‘’I didn’’t!’’ While you succeed in winning with those two words, though you’’ve no case, you’’ll conquer the judge too! (tr. Tony Kline)



This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

Est qui nequitiam locus exigat; omnibus illum
deliciis imple, stet procul inde pudor!
hinc simul exieris, lascivia protinus omnis
absit, et in lecto crimina pone tuo.
illic nec tunicam tibi sit posuisse pudori
nec femori impositum sustinuisse femur;
illic purpureis condatur lingua labellis,
inque modos Venerem mille figuret amor;
illic nec voces nec verba iuvantia cessent,
spondaque lasciva mobilitate tremat!
indue cum tunicis metuentem crimina vultum,
et pudor obscenum diffiteatur opus;
da populo, da verba mihi; sine nescius errem,
et liceat stulta credulitate frui!
Cur totiens video mitti recipique tabellas?
cur pressus prior est interiorque torus?
cur plus quam somno turbatos esse capillos
collaque conspicio dentis habere notam?
tantum non oculos crimen deducis ad ipsos;
si dubitas famae parcere, parce mihi!
mens abit et morior quotiens peccasse fateris,
perque meos artus frigida gutta fluit.
tunc amo, tunc odi frustra quod amare necesse est;
tunc ego, sed tecum, mortuus esse velim!
(Ovid, Am. 3.14.17-40)

If there’’s a place demands naughtiness: then fill it with all delights, let shame be far away! Likewise when you leave off, straightaway forget all lasciviousness: leave the sin there, in your bed. There, don’’t let your slip make you over-shy, or not allow your thigh to press against a thigh: there, let my tongue be buried between your rosy lips, and let desire shape a thousand ways to love: there, don’’t let your words and sounds of delight cease, let the naughty bed tremble at your agility! Then, with your dress, put on the face that fears sin, and let shame disown the works of obscenity: Tell me, tell people anything: let me err without knowing, and let me enjoy a fool’’s credulity! Why do I see so many notes received and given? Why are the pillow and the sheet wrinkled? Why do I have to see such obvious love-bites on your neck, and your hair disturbed by more than sleep? You only hide the sin itself from my eyes: If you hesitate to spare your reputation, well spare me! My mind’’s gone, I’’m dying, when you confess your crimes, and the blood runs cold in my whole body. Then I love, and hate, in vain, what I have to love: then I wish, with you, that I was dead! (tr. Tony Kline)


William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Idylle, 1851
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Idylle (1851)

This is part 1 of 3. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here.

Non ego, ne pecces, cum sis formosa, recuso,
sed ne sit misero scire necesse mihi;
nec te nostra iubet fieri censura pudicam,
sed tamen, ut temptes dissimulare, rogat.
non peccat, quaecumque potest peccasse negare,
solaque famosam culpa professa facit.
quis furor est, quae nocte latent, in luce fateri,
et quae clam facias facta referre palam?
ignoto meretrix corpus iunctura Quiriti
opposita populum summovet ante sera;
tu tua prostitues famae peccata sinistrae
commissi perages indiciumque tui?
sit tibi mens melior, saltemve imitare pudicas,
teque probam, quamvis non eris, esse putem.
quae facis, haec facito; tantum fecisse negato,
nec pudeat coram verba modesta loqui!
(Ovid, Am. 3.14.1-16)

I don’’t say ‘don’’t sin’, since you’’re beautiful, but there’’s no need for me, poor fool, to know: and no censure of mine demands that you’’re chaste, it only asks that you try and conceal it. She didn’’t sin, if she can deny she sinned, only confession makes crimes notorious. What madness to expose, by day, what midnight hides: why make what’’s secret into a well-known fact? Some whore who couples with a nameless citizen moves away from the crowd before it’’s too late. Will you prostitute your sins for worthless fame and talk about what you’’ve done to fuel opinion? Improve your ways: at least pretend you’’re chaste, and I can approve, thinking you what you’’re not. What you do, keep doing it: just deny it, and don’’t be ashamed to speak modestly in public! (tr. Tony Kline)



Sedigitus in libro, quem scripsit de poëtis, quid de his sentiat, qui comoedias fecerunt, et quem praestare ex omnibus ceteris putet ac deinceps, quo quemque in loco et honore ponat, his versibus suis demonstrat:
multos incertos certare hanc rem vidimus,
palmam poëtae comico cui deferant.
eum meo iudicio errorem dissolvam tibi,
ut, contra si quis sentiat, nihil sentiat.
Caecilio palmam Statio do comico.
Plautus secundus facile exsuperat ceteros.
dein Naevius, qui fervet, pretio in tertiost.
si erit, quod quarto detur, dabitur Licinio.
post insequi Licinium facio Atilium.
in sexto consequetur hos Terentius,
Turpilius septimum, Trabea octavum optinet,
nono loco esse facile facio Luscium.
decimum addo causa antiquitatis Ennium.
[Volcacius Sedigitus, fr. 1]
(Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. 15.24)

In the book he wrote about poets, Sedigitus demonstrates in the following verses what he thinks of those who wrote comedies and whom he believes to suprass all others, and finally to which position of honor he assigns each individual: “we see that many debate this manner, being uncertain to which comic poet they should assign the victory parlm. By my judgment, I will resolve this uncertainty for you, so that, if anyone thinks otherwise, that opinion has no value. I give the victory palm to the comic poet Caecilius Statius. Plautus, in second place, easily surpasses the others. Then Naevius, who is passionate, is in third position. If there is something to give to the one in fourth place, it will be given to Licinius. I have Attilius following Licinius. In sixth place Terence will follow them, Turpilius holds seventh, Trabea eighth position. I easily put Luscius [Lanuvinus] in ninth place. As the tenth poet I add Ennius by virtue of his antiquity.” (tr. Gesine Manuwald)



Ὅσα δ’ ἄλλα πρὸς τούτῳ τολμήματα καὶ ῥήματα τῶν Σπαρτιατῶν παραλέλοιπεν*, ἐν τῷ Λεωνίδου βίῳ γραφήσεται. μικρὰ δ’ οὐ χεῖρόν ἐστι καὶ νῦν διελθεῖν. ἀγῶνα μὲν γὰρ ἐπιτάφιον αὐτῶν ἠγωνίσαντο πρὸ τῆς ἐξόδου καὶ τοῦτον ἐθεῶντο πατέρες αὐτῶν καὶ μητέρες· αὐτὸς δ’ ὁ Λεωνίδας πρὸς μὲν τὸν εἰπόντα παντελῶς ὀλίγους ἐξάγειν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν μάχην “πολλοὺς μὲν” ἔφη “τεθνηξομένους”· πρὸς δὲ τὴν γυναῖκα, πυνθανομένην ἐξιόντος εἴ τι λέγοι, μεταστραφεὶς εἶπεν “ἀγαθοῖς γαμεῖσθαι καὶ ἀγαθὰ τίκτειν.” ἐν δὲ Θερμοπύλαις μετὰ τὴν κύκλωσιν δύο τῶν ἀπὸ γένους ὑπεξελέσθαι βουλόμενος ἐπιστολὴν ἐδίδου τῷ ἑτέρῳ καὶ ἔπεμπεν· ὁ δ’ οὐκ ἐδέξατο φήσας μετ’ ὀργῆς “μαχατάς τοι, οὐκ ἀγγελιαφόρος, εἱπόμαν”· τὸν δ’ ἕτερον ἐκέλευεν εἰπεῖν τι πρὸς τὰ τέλη τῶν Σπαρτιατῶν ὁ δ’ ἀπεκρίνατο τῷ πράγματι, καὶ τὴν ἀσπίδα λαβὼν εἰς τάξιν κατέστη. ταῦτ’ οὐκ ἄν τις ἐπετίμησεν, ἄλλου παραλιπόντος; ὁ δὲ τὴν Ἀμάσιδος ἀποψόφησιν καὶ τὴν τῶν ὄνων τοῦ κλέπτου προσέλασιν καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀσκῶν ἐπίδοσιν καὶ πολλὰ τοιαῦτα συναγαγὼν καὶ διαμνημονεύων, οὐκ ἀμελείᾳ δόξειεν ἂν καὶ ὑπεροψίᾳ προΐεσθαι καλὰ μὲν ἔργα, καλὰς δὲ φωνὰς, ἀλλ’ οὐκ εὐμενὴς ὢν πρὸς ἐνίους, οὐδὲ δίκαιος.

* sc. Ἡρόδοτος

(Plutarch, Peri tēs Hērodotou kakoētheias 32)

What other acts and sayings of the Spartans Herodotus has omitted, we will write in the Life of Leonidas; yet that hinders not but we may here set down also some few. Before Leonidas went forth to that war, the Spartans exhibited to him funeral games, at which the fathers and mothers of those that went along with him were spectators. Leonidas himself, when one said to him, “You lead very few with you to the battle”, answered, “There are many to die there”. When his wife, at his departure, asked him what commands he had for her; he, turning to her, said, “I command you to marry good men, and bring them good children”. After he was enclosed by the enemy at Thermopylae, desiring to save two that were related to him, he gave one of them a letter and sent him away; but he rejected it, saying angrily, “I followed you as a soldier, not as a post”. The other he commanded on a message to the magistrates of Sparta; but he, answering by his act, took his shield, and stood up in his rank. Who would not have blamed another that should have omitted these things? But he who has collected and recorded the fart of Amasis, the coming of the thiefs asses, and the giving of bottles, and many such like things, cannot seem to have omitted these gallant acts and these remarkable sayings by negligence and oversight, but as bearing ill-will and being unjust to some. (tr. William W. Goodwin)



Ad evidentiam itaque dicendorum sciendum est quod istius operis non est simplex sensus, ymo dici potest polysemos, hoc est plurium sensuum; nam primus sensus est qui habetur per litteram, alius est qui habetur per significata per litteram. et primus dicitur litteralis, secundus vero allegoricus, sive moralis, sive anagogicus. qui modus tractandi, ut melius pateat, potest considerari in hiis versibus: “in exitu Israel de Egipto, domus Iacob de populo barbaro, facta est Iudea sanctificatio eius, Israel potestas eius”. nam si ad litteram solam inspiciamus, significatur nobis exitus filiorum Israel de Egipto, tempore Moysis; si ad allegoriam, nobis significatur nostra redemptio facta per Christum; si ad moralem sensum, significatur nobis conversio anime de luctu et miseria peccati ad statum gratie; si ad anagogicum, significatur exitus anime sancte ab huius corruptionis servitute ad eterne glorie libertatem. et quanquam isti sensus mystici variis appellentur nominibus, generaliter omnes dici possunt allegorici, cum sint a litterali sive historiali diversi. Nam allegoria dicitur ab alleon grece, quod in Latinum dicitur alienum sive diversum.
(Dante Alighieri, Epist. 10.7)

For the elucidation, therefore, of what we have to say, it must be understood that the meaning of this work is not of one kind only; rather the work may be described as ‘polysemous’, that is, having several meanings; for the first meaning is that which is conveyed by the letter, and the next is that which is conveyed by what the letter signifies; the former of which is called literal, while the latter is called allegorical, or mystical [or moral, or anagogical]. And for the better illustration of this method of exposition we may apply it to the following verses: “When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language; Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion”. For if we consider the letter alone, the thing signified to us is the going out of the children of Israel from Egypt in the time of Moses; if the allegory, our redemption through Christ is signified; if the moral sense, the conversion of the soul from the sorrow and misery of sin to a state of grace is signified; if the anagogical, the passing of the sanctified soul from the bondage of the corruption of this world to the liberty of everlasting glory is signified. And although these mystical meanings are called by various names, they may one and all in a general sense be termed allegorical, inasmuch as they are different (diversi) from the literal or historical; for the word ‘allegory’ is so called from the Greek alleon, which in Latin is alienum (‘strange’) or diversum (‘different’). (tr. Paget Toynbee)



C. Marius recidendorum impedimentorum gratia, quibus maxime exercitus agmen oneratur, vasa et cibaria militis in fasciculos aptata furcis imposuit, sub quibus et habile onus et facilis requies esset; unde et proverbium tractum est “muli Mariani”.
(Frontinus, Strat. 4.1.7)

For the purpose of limiting the number of pack animals, by which the march of the army was especially hampered, Gaius Marius had his soldiers fasten their utensils and food up in bundles and hang these on forked poles, to make the burden easy and to facilitate rest; whence the expression “Marius’s mules.” (tr. Charles E. Bennett)