Lukaina

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Peter Paul Rubens, Romulus en Remus (ca. 1615)

Περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς Ἰλίας γενομένων Κόιντος μὲν Φάβιος ὁ Πίκτωρ λεγόμενος, ᾧ Λεύκιός τε Κίγκιος καὶ Κάτων Πόρκιος καὶ Πείσων Καλπούρνιος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων συγγραφέων οἱ πλείους ἠκολούθησαν, γέγραφε· ὡς κελεύσαντος Ἀμολίου τὰ βρέφη λαβόντες ἐν σκάφῃ κείμενα τῶν ὑπηρετῶν τινες ἔφερον ἐμβαλοῦντες εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπέχοντα τῆς πόλεως ἀμφὶ τοὺς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι σταδίους. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐγγὺς ἐγένοντο καὶ εἶδον ἔξω τοῦ γνησίου ῥείθρου τὸν Τέβεριν ὑπὸ χειμώνων συνεχῶν ἐκτετραμμένον εἰς τὰ πεδία, καταβάντες ἀπὸ τοῦ Παλλαντίου τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὸ προσεχέστατον ὕδωρ, (οὐ γὰρ ἔτι προσωτέρω χωρεῖν οἷοίτε ἦσαν), ἔνθα πρῶτον ἡ τοῦ ποταμοῦ πλήμη τῆς ὑπωρείας ἥπτετο, τίθενται τὴν σκάφην ἐπὶ τοῦ ὕδατος. Ἡ δὲ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐνήχετο, ἔπειτα τοῦ ῥείθρου κατὰ μικρὸν ὑποχωροῦντος ἐκ τῶν περιεσχάτων λίθου προσπταίσει περιτραπεῖσα ἐκβάλλει τὰ βρέφη. τὰ μὲν δὴ κνυζούμενα κατὰ τοῦ τέλματος ἐκυλινδεῖτο, λύκαινα δέ τις ἐπιφανεῖσα νεοτόκος σπαργῶσα τοὺς μαστοὺς ὑπὸ γάλακτος ἀνεδίδου τὰς θηλὰς τοῖς στόμασιν αὐτῶν καὶ τῇ γλώττῃ τὸν πηλόν, ᾧ κατάπλεοι ἦσαν, ἀπελίχμα. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ τυγχάνουσιν οἱ νομεῖς ἐξελαύνοντες τὰς ἀγέλας ἐπὶ νομήν (ἤδη γὰρ ἐμβατὸν ἦν τὸ χωρίον) καί τις αὐτῶν ἰδὼν τὴν λύκαιναν ὡς ἠσπάζετο τὰ βρέφη τέως μὲν ἀχανὴς ἦν ὑπό τε θάμβους καὶ ἀπιστίας τῶν θεωρουμένων· ἔπειτ’ ἀπελθὼν καὶ συλλέξας ὅσους ἐδύνατο πλείστους τῶν ἀγχοῦ νεμόντων (οὐ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετο λέγων) ἄγει τοὖργον αὐτὸ θεασομένους. ὡς δὲ κἀκεῖνοι πλησίον ἐλθόντες ἔμαθον τὴν μὲν ὥσπερ τέκνα περιέπουσαν, τὰ δ’ ὡς μητρὸς ἐξεχόμενα, δαιμόνιόν τι χρῆμα ὁρᾶν ὑπολαβόντες ἐγγυτέρω προσῄεσαν ἀθρόοι δεδιττόμενοι βοῇ τὸ θηρίον. ἡ δὲ λύκαινα οὐ μάλα ἀγριαίνουσα τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῇ προσόδῳ, ἀλλ’ ὡσπερὰν χειροήθης ἀποστᾶσα τῶν βρεφῶν ἠρέμα καὶ κατὰ πολλὴν ἀλογίαν τοῦ ποιμενικοῦ ὁμίλου ἀπῄει.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 1.79.4-7)

But concerning the babes born of Ilia, Quintus Fabius, called Pictor, whom Lucius Cincius, Porcius Cato, Calpurnius Piso and most of the other historians have followed, writes thus: By the order of Amulius some of his servants took the babes in an ark and carried them to the river, distant about a hundred and twenty stades from the city, with the intention of throwing them into it. But when they drew near and perceived that the Tiber, swollen by continual rains, had left its natural bed and overflowed the plains, they came down from the top of the Palatine hill to that part of the water that lay nearest (for they could no longer advance any farther) and set down the ark upon the flood where it washed the foot of the hill. The ark floated for some time, and then, as the waters retired by degrees from their extreme limits, it struck against a stone and, overturning, threw out the babes, who lay whimpering and wallowing in the mud. Upon this, a she-wolf that had just whelped appeared and, her udder being distended with milk, gave them her paps to suck and with her tongue licked off the mud with which they were besmeared. In the meantime the herdsmen happened to be driving their flocks forth to pasture (for the place was now become passable) and one of them, seeing the wolf thus fondling the babes, was for some time struck dumb with astonishment and disbelief of what he saw. Then going away and getting together as many as he could of his fellows who kept their herds near at hand (for they would not believe what he said), he led them to see the sight themselves. When these also drew near and saw the wolf caring for the babes as if they had been her young and the babes clinging to her as to their mother, they thought they were beholding a supernatural sight and advanced in a body, shouting to terrify the creature. The wolf, however, far from being provoked at the approach of the men, but as if she had been tame, withdrew gently from the babes and went away, paying little heed to the rabble of shepherds. (tr. Earnest Cary)

Pullus

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This is part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

Cur taceam quae dicitis? ad quid celem quod proditis? cur abscondo quod facitis? matres vos divulgatis, filium me fateor. gratias ago: filium me genuistis cum Christianum me fecistis, tu per te ipsum, et tu per eundem ipsum: tu per doctrinam a te factam, et tu per doctrinam tibi inspiratam: tu per gratiam a te mihi concessam, et tu per gratiam ab illo acceptam. Paule mater, et te ipse genuit. pone ergo filium tuum mortuum ante pedes Christi matris tuae, quia filius eius est. immo iacta illum in sinum pietatis eius, quia plus ipse mater est. ora ut resuscitet mortuum filium, non tam tuum, quam suum. ora pro filio tuo quia mater es, ut vivificet filium suum, quia mater est. fac, mater animae meae, quod faceret mater carnis meae. utique si speraret, oraret quantum posset, nec cessaret donec impetraret si posset. certe si vis, non potes desperare; et si oras, potes impetrare. insta ergo ut anima mortua, quam tu vivam peperisti, vitae restituatur, nec cesses donec tibi viva reddatur. tu quoque, anima mortua per te ipsam, curre sub alas Iesus matris tuae, et conquerere sub pennis eius dolores tuos. postula ut plagas tuas confoveat, et ut confotis vita redeat. Christe mater, qui congregas sub alas pullos tuos, mortuus hic pullus tuus subiicit se sub alas tuas. nam lenitate tua exterriti confoventur, odore tuo desperantes reformantur. calor tuus mortuos vivificat, attactus tuus peccatores iustificat. agnosce, mater, filium tuum mortuum, vel per signum crucis tuae, vel per vocem confessionis tuae. refove pullum tuum, resuscita mortuum tuum, iustifica peccatorem tuum. exterritus tuus a te consoletur, a se desperans a te confortetur, et in integram et inseparabilem gratiam tuam per te reformetur. a te namque fluit consolatio miserorum, qui sis benedictus in saecula saeculorum. amen.
(Anselm of Canterbury, Oratio 10 ad Sanctum Paulum)

Why should I be silent about what you have said?
Why should I conceal what you have revealed?
Why should I hide what you have done?
You have revealed yourselves as mothers;
I know myself to be a son.
I give thanks that you brought me forth as a son
when you made me a Christian:
you, Lord, by yourself, you, Paul, through him;
you by the doctrine you made,
you by the doctrine breathed into you.
You by the grace you have granted to me,
you by the grace you accepted from him.
Paul, my mother, Christ bore you also;
so place your dead son at the feet of Christ, your mother,
because he also is Christ’s son.
Rather, throw him into the heart of Christ’s goodness,
for Christ is even more his mother.
Pray that he will give life to a dead son,
who is not so much yours as his.
St. Paul, pray for your son, because you are his mother,
that the lord, who is his mother too,
may give life to his son.
Do, mother of my soul,
what the mother of my flesh would do.
At least, if I may hope, I may pray as much as I can;
nor cease until I obtain what I can.
Certainly, if you will, you need not despair;
and if you pray, you are able to obtain.
Ask then, that this dead soul which you brought to life,
may be restored to life,
nor cease until he is given back to you, living.
*
And you, my soul, dead in yourself,
run under the wings of Jesus your mother
and lament your griefs under his feathers.
Ask that your wounds may be healed
and that, comforted, you may live again.
*
Christ, my mother,
you gather your chickens under your wings;
this dead chicken of yours puts himself under those wings.
For by your gentleness the badly frightened are comforted,
by your sweet smell the despairing are revived,
your warmth gives life to the dead,
your touch justifies sinners.
Mother, know again your dead son,
both by the sign of your cross and the voice of his confession.
Warm your chicken, give life to your dead man, justify your sinner.
Let your terrified one be consoled by you;
despairing of himself, let him be comforted by you.
and in your whole and unceasing grace
let him be refashioned by you.
For from you flows consolation for sinners;
to you the blessing for ages and ages. Amen.
(tr. Benedicta Ward)

Gallina

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This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

Sed et tu, Iesu, bone Domine, nonne et tu mater? annon es mater, qui tamquam gallina congregat sub alas pullos suos? vere, Domine, et tu mater. nam quod alii parturierunt et pepererunt, a te acceperunt. tu prius propter illos, et quos pepererunt, parturiendo mortuus es, et moriendo peperisti. nam nisi parturiisses, mortuus non esses; et nisi mortuus esses, non peperisses. desiderio enim gignendi filios ad vitam, mortem gustasti, et moriens genuisti. tu per te, illi iussi et adiuti a te. tu ut auctor, illi ut ministri. ergo tu, Domine Deus, magis mater. ambo ergo matres. nam etsi patres, tamen et matres. vos enim effecistis, tu per te, tu per illum, ut nati ad mortem renasceremur ad vitam. patres igitur estis per effectum, matres per affectum; patres per auctoritatem, matres per benignitatem; patres per tuitionem, matres per miserationem. ergo et tu mater, et tu mater: etsi quantitate affectus impares; in qualitate tamen non dissimiles. quamvis magnitudine benignitatis non coaequantes; voluntate tamen concordantes: licet plenitudine miserationis non convenientes; intentione tamen non disconvenientes.
(Anselm of Canterbury, Oratio 10 ad Sanctum Paulum)

And you, Jesus, are you not also a mother?
Are you not the mother who, like a hen,
gathers her chickens under her wings?
Truly, Lord, you are a mother;
for both they who are in labour
and they who are brought forth
are accepted by you.
You have died more than they, that they may labour to bear.
It is by your death that they have been born,
for if you had not been in labour,
you could not have borne death;
and if you had not died, you would not have brought forth.
For, longing to bear sons into life,
you tasted of death,
and by dying you begot them.
You did this in your own self,
your servants, by your commands and help.
You as the author, they as the ministers.
So you, Lord God, are the great mother.
*
Then both of you are mothers.
Even if you are fathers, you are also mothers.
For you have brought it about that those born to death
should be reborn to life –
you by your own act, you by his power.
Therefore you are fathers by your effect
and mothers by your affection.
Fathers by your authority, mothers by your kindness.
Fathers by your teaching, mothers by your mercy.
Then you, Lord, are a mother
and you, Paul, are a mother too.
If in quantity of affection you are unequal,
yet in quality you are not unalike.
Though in the greatness of your kindness
you are not co-equal,
yet in will you are of one heart.
Although you have not equal fullness of mercy,
yet in intention you are not unequal.
(tr. Benedicta Ward)

Nutrix

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This is part 1 of 3. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here.

O Sancte Paule, ubi est illa nominata nutrix fidelium, fovens filios suos? quae est illa affectuosa mater, quae se ubique praedicat filios suos iterum parturire? dulcis nutrix, dulcis mater, quos filios paraturis aut nutris, nisi quos in fide Christi docendo gignis et erudis? aut quis christianus post te doctrina tua non est in fide natus et confirmatus? nam etsi benedicta fides ista ab aliis quoque apostolis nobis nata sit et nutrita: utique magis a te, quia plus omnibus in hoc laborasti et effecisti. cum ergo illi sint nobis matres, tu magis nostra mater.
ergo, Sancte Paule, filius tuus est mortuus iste. mater mortuus iste certe filius tuus est. dulcis mater, recognosce filium tuum ex voce confessionis; recognoscat ille matrem suam ex affectu compassionis. recognosce filium ex confessione christianitatis; recognoscat ille matrem ex dulcedine pietatis. offer, mater, tu quae iterum parturis filios suos, offer, mortuum filium tuum iterum resuscitandum illi, qui morte sua resuscitavit servos tuos. offer, mater, illi qui morte sua indebita revocavit reos suos a morte debita; offer illi filium tuum, ut revocet ei vitam perditam. per baptismum enim eductus a morte, per sterilitatem et pravitatem reductus est in mortem. mater famosi affectus, sentiat filius tuus viscera maternae pietatis. exhibe eum illi qui te resuscitavit, et viventem servavit. ora eum pro filio tuo, quia servus eius est: ora eum pro servo suo, quia filius tuus est.
(Anselm of Canterbury, Oratio 10 ad Sanctum Paulum)

O St Paul, where is he that was called
the nurse of the faithful, caressing his sons?
Who is that affectionate mother who declares everywhere
that she is in labour for her sons?
Sweet nurse, sweet mother,
who are the sons you are in labour with, and nurse,
but those whom by teaching the faith of Christ
you bear and instruct?
Or who is a Christian after your teaching
who is not born into the faith and established in it by you?
And if in that blessed faith we are born
and nursed by other apostles also,
it is most of all by you,
for you have laboured and done more than them all in this;
so if they are our mothers, you are our greatest mother.
*
So then, St Paul, your son is this dead man.
Mother, this dead man is certainly your son.
Dear mother, recognize your son
by the voice of his confession;
he recognizes his mother by her loving compassion.
Recognize your son by his confession of Christianity;
he recognizes his mother by the sweetness of goodness.
O mother, you who again give birth to your sons,
offer your dead son again, to be raised up by him
who by his death gives life to his servants.
O mother, offer your son to him
who by his death, which was not owing,
called back his condemned ones
from the death that was their due;
that he may call back to him the life he has lost.
By baptism he was led out of death;
by barrenness and corruption he is led back into death.
O mother, well known for your love,
your son knows the heart of a mother’s goodness.
Show him to God,
you who have brought him back to life
and cared for him living.
Pray to him for your son, who is his servant;
pray to him for his servant, who is your son.
(tr. Benedicta Ward)

Ēthos

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Ὅμηρος δὲ ἄλλα τε πολλὰ ἄξιος ἐπαινεῖσθαι καὶ δὴ καὶ ὅτι μόνος τῶν ποιητῶν οὐκ ἀγνοεῖ ὃ δεῖ ποιεῖν αὐτόν. αὐτὸν γὰρ δεῖ τὸν ποιητὴν ἐλάχιστα λέγειν· οὐ γάρ ἐστι κατὰ ταῦτα μιμητής. οἱ μὲν οὖν ἄλλοι αὐτοὶ μὲν δι’ ὅλου ἀγωνίζονται, μιμοῦνται δὲ ὀλίγα καὶ ὀλιγάκις· ὁ δὲ ὀλίγα φροιμιασάμενος εὐθὺς εἰσάγει ἄνδρα ἢ γυναῖκα ἢ ἄλλο τι ἦθος, καὶ οὐδέν’ ἀήθη ἀλλ’ ἔχοντα ἦθος. δεῖ μὲν οὖν ἐν ταῖς τραγῳδίαις ποιεῖν τὸ θαυμαστόν, μᾶλλον δ’ ἐνδέχεται ἐν τῇ ἐποποιίᾳ τὸ ἄλογον, δι’ ὃ συμβαίνει μάλιστα τὸ θαυμαστόν, διὰ τὸ μὴ ὁρᾶν εἰς τὸν πράττοντα· ἐπεὶ τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἕκτορος δίωξιν ἐπὶ σκηνῆς ὄντα γελοῖα ἂν φανείη, οἱ μὲν ἑστῶτες καὶ οὐ διώκοντες, ὁ δὲ ἀνανεύων, ἐν δὲ τοῖς ἔπεσιν λανθάνει. τὸ δὲ θαυμαστὸν ἡδύ· σημεῖον δέ, πάντες γὰρ προστιθέντες ἀπαγγέλλουσιν ὡς χαριζόμενοι.
(Aristotle, Poet. 1460a5-18)

Homer deserves praise for many other qualities, but especially for realising, alone among epic poets, the place of the poet’s own voice. For the poet should say as little as possible in his own voice, as it is not this that makes him a mimetic artist. The others participate in their own voice throughout, and engage in mimesis only briefly and occasionally, whereas Homer, after a brief introduction, at once “brings onto stage” a man, woman, or other figure (all of them rich in character). In tragedy one needs to create a sense of awe, but epic has more scope for the irrational (the chief cause of awe), because we do not actually see the agent. The entire pursuit of Hector, if put on stage, would strike us as ludicrous—with the men standing and refraining from pursuit, and Achilles forbidding them—but in epic this goes unnoticed. Awe is pleasurable: witness the fact that all men exaggerate when relating stories, to give delight. (tr. Stephen Halliwell)

Stipendium

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Pulchra itaque copula seniorum atque adolescentium. alii testimonio, alii solatio sunt: alii magisterio, alii delectationi. omitto quod Abrahae adhaesit Loth adolescentulus etiam proficiscenti; ne forte hoc propinquitatis magis fuisse existimetur, et necessariae potius quam voluntariae adiunctionis. quid Eliam atque Elisaeum loquamur? licet non expresse Elisaeum iuvenem Scriptura significaverit, advertimus tamen et colligimus iuniorem fuisse. in Actibus Apostolorum Barnabas Marcum assumpsit, Paulus Silam, Paulus Timotheum, Paulus Titum. sed illis superioribus videmus divisa officia, ut seniores consilio praevalerent, iuniores ministerio. plerumque etiam virtutibus pares, dispares aetatibus, sui delectantur copula, sicut delectabantur Petrus et Ioannes. nam adolescentem legimus in Evangelio Ioannem et sua voce, licet meritis et sapientia nulli fuerit seniorum secundus, erat enim in eo senectus venerabilis morum et cana prudentia. vita enim immaculata bonae senectutis stipendium est.
(Ambrose, De Officiis Ministrorum 2.100-101)

Beautiful, therefore, is the union between old and young. The one to give witness, the other to give comfort; the one to give guidance, the other to give pleasure. I pass by Lot, who when young clung to Abraham, as he was setting out. For some perhaps might say this arose rather owing to their relationship than from any voluntary action on his part. And what are we to say of Elijah and Elisha? Though Scripture has not in so many words stated that Elisha was a young man, yet we gather from it that he was the younger. In the Acts of the Apostles, Barnabas took Mark with him, and Paul took Silas and Timothy and Titus. We see also that duties were divided amongst them according to their superiority in anything. The elders took the lead in giving counsel, the younger in showing activity. Often, too, those who were alike in virtue but unlike in years were greatly rejoiced at their union, as Peter and John were. We read in the Gospel that John was a young man, even in his own words, though he was behind none of the elders in merits and wisdom. For in him there was a venerable ripeness of character and the prudence of the hoarhead. An unspotted life is the due of a good old age. (tr. Henry de Romestin)

Flere

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…quis miratur flere hominem? hinc infantia incipit, in hanc necessitatem plerumque Fortuna deducit. quis enim est dies qui non triste aliquid et flebile nobis minetur? si nullam aliam rationem lacrimarum haberemus, conspectus tamen hominum et ratio mortalitatis poterat elicere fletus. hae amicitiae, hae propinquitates, hi congressus, haec studia laudesque intra breve temporis momentum occident atque labentur. quotus quisque transit dies quo non funus aspiciamus?
(Pseudo-Quintilian, Decl. 316.8-9)

…meanwhile, who wonders that a human being weeps? Infancy starts from that, Fortune mostly leads into this compulsion. For what day but threatens us with something sad and lamentable? If we had no other reason for tears, the survey of mankind and the consideration of mortality could elicit weeping. These friendships, these family bonds, these gatherings, these studies and achievements will die and slip away in a brief moment of time. How few days pass in which we do not see a funeral? (tr. David Roy Shackleton Bailey)