Asporon

 

Juan Antonio Ribera, Cincinato abandona el arado para dictar leyes a Roma, ca. 1806
Juan Antonio Ribera, Cincinato abandona el arado para dictar leyes a Roma (ca. 1806)

Καὶ ἐπειδὴ ὁ τῶν ἀρχαιρεσίων ἐνέστη χρόνος, καὶ ὁ κῆρυξ τὴν πρώτην τάξιν ἐκάλεσεν, εἰσελθόντες εἰς τὸν ἀποδειχθέντα τόπον οἵ τ’ ὀκτωκαίδεκα λόχοι τῶν ἱππέων καὶ οἱ τῶν πεζῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τῶν τὸ μέγιστον τίμημα ἐχόντων Λεύκιον Κοίντιον Κικιννᾶτον ἀποδεικνύουσιν ὕπατον, οὗ τὸν υἱὸν Καίσωνα Κοίντιον εἰς ἀγῶνα θανάτου καταστήσαντες οἱ δήμαρχοι τὴν πόλιν ἠνάγκασαν ἐκλιπεῖν· καὶ οὐδεμιᾶς ἔτι κληθείσης ἐπὶ τὴν ψηφοφορίαν τάξεως (τρισὶ γὰρ ἦσαν λόχοις πλείους οἱ διενέγκαντες τὴν ψῆφον λόχοι τῶν ὑπολειπομένων) ὁ μὲν δῆμος ἀπῄει συμφορὰν βαρεῖαν ἡγούμενος, ὅτι μισῶν αὐτοὺς ἀνὴρ ἐξουσίας ὑπατικῆς ἔσται κύριος, ἡ βουλὴ δὲ ἔπεμπε τοὺς παραληψομένους τὸν ὕπατον καὶ ἄξοντας ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. ἔτυχε δὲ τηνικαῦτα ὁ Κοίντιος ἄρουράν τινα ὑπεργαζόμενος εἰς σποράν, αὐτὸς ἀκολουθῶν τοῖς σχίζουσι τὴν νειὸν βοιδίοις ἀχίτων, περιζωμάτιον ἔχων καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ πῖλον. ἰδὼν δὲ πλῆθος ἀνθρώπων εἰς τὸ χωρίον εἰσιόντων τό τε ἄροτρον ἐπέσχε καὶ πολὺν ἠπόρει χρόνον, οἵτινές τε εἶεν καὶ τίνος δεόμενοι πρὸς αὐτὸν ἥκοιεν· ἔπειτα προσδραμόντος τινὸς καὶ κελεύσαντος κοσμιώτερον ἑαυτὸν ποιῆσαι παρελθὼν εἰς τὴν καλύβη καὶ ἀμφιεσάμενος προῆλθεν. οἱ δ’ ἐπὶ τὴν παράληψιν αὐτοῦ παρόντες ἠσπάσαντό τε ἅπαντες οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ ὀνόματος, ἀλλ’ ὕπατον καὶ τὴν περιπόρφυρον ἐσθῆτα περιέθεσαν τούς τε πελέκεις καὶ τἆλλα παράσημα τῆς ἀρχῆς παραστήσαντες ἀκολουθεῖν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἠξίουν. κἀκεῖνος μικρὸν ἐπισχὼν καὶ δακρύσας τοσοῦτον εἶπεν· “ἄσπορον ἄρα μοι τὸ χωρίον ἔσται τοῦτον τὸν ἐνιαυτόν, καὶ κινδυνεύσομεν οὐχ ἕξειν, πόθεν διατραφῶμεν.” ἔπειτ’ ἀσπασάμενος τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ τῶν ἔνδον ἐπιμελεῖσθαι παραγγείλας ᾤχετο εἰς τὴν πόλιν. ταῦτα δὲ οὐχ ἑτέρου τινὸς χάριν εἰπεῖν προήχθην, ἀλλ’ ἵνα φανερὸν γένηται πᾶσιν, οἷοι τότε ἦσαν οἱ τῆς Ῥωμαίων πόλεως προεστηκότες, ὡς αὐτουργοὶ καὶ σώφρονες καὶ πενίαν δικαίαν οὐ βαρυνόμενοι καὶ βασιλικὰς οὐ διώκοντες ἐξουσίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ διδομένας ἀναινόμενοι· φανήσονται γὰρ οὐδὲ κατὰ μικρὸν ἐοικότες ἐκείνοις οἱ νῦν, ἀλλὰ τἀναντία πάντα ἐπιτηδεύοντες, πλὴν πάνυ ὀλίγων, δι’ οὓς ἕστηκεν ἔτι τὸ τῆς πόλεως ἀξίωμα καὶ τὸ σώζειν τὴν πρὸς ἐκείνους τοὺς ἄνδρας ὁμοιότητα. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἅλις.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 10.17.3-6)

And when the day appointed for the election had come and the herald had called the first class, the eighteen centuries of knights together with the eighty centuries of foot, consisting of the wealthiest citizens, entering the appointed place, chose as consul L. Quinctius Cincinnatus, whose son Caeso Quinctius the tribunes had brought to trial for his life and compelled to leave the city. And no other class being called to vote—for the centuries which had voted were three more in be than the remaining centuries—the populace departed, regarding it as a grievous misfortune that a man who hated them was to be possessed of the consular power. Meanwhile the senate sent men to invite the consul and to conduct him to the city to assume his magistracy. It chanced that Quinctius was just then plowing a piece of land for sowing, he himself following the gaunt oxen that were breaking up the fallow; he had no tunic on, wore a small loin-cloth and had a cap upon his head. Upon seeing a crowd of people come into the field he stopped his plough and for a long time was at a loss to know who they were or what they wanted of him; then, when some one ran up to him and bade him make himself more presentable, he went into the cottage and after putting on his clothes came out to them. Thereupon the men who were sent to escort him all greeted him, not by his name, but as consul; and clothing him with the purple-bordered robe and placing before him the axes and the other insignia of his magistracy, they asked him to follow them to the city. And he, pausing for a moment and shedding tears, said only this: “So my field will go unsown this year, and we shall be indicate danger of having not enough to live on.” Then he kissed his wife, and charging her to take care of things at home, went to the city. I am led to relate these particulars for no other reason than to let all the world see what kind of men the leaders of Rome were at that time, that they worked with their own hands, led frugal lives, did not chafe under honorable poverty, and, far from aiming at positions of royal power, actually refused them when offered. For it will be seen that the Romans of to‑day do not bear the least resemblance to them, but follow the very opposite practices in everything—with the exception of a very few by whom the dignity of the commonwealth is still maintained and a resemblance to those men preserved. But enough on this subject. (tr. Earnest Cary)

Exousian

Strict-parenting

Ἃ μὲν οὖν εἰς γυναῖκας εὖ ἔχοντα ὁ Ῥωμύλος ἐνομοθέτησεν, ἐξ ὧν κοσμιωτέρας περὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας αὐτὰς ἀπειργάσατο, ταῦτ’ ἐστιν, ἃ δ’ εἰς αἰδῶ καὶ δικαιοσύνην παίδων, ἵνα σέβωσι τοὺς πατέρας ἅπαντα πράττοντές τε καὶ λέγοντες ὅσα ἂν ἐκεῖνοι κελεύωσιν, ἔτι τούτων ἦν σεμνότερα καὶ μεγαλοπρεπέστερα καὶ πολλὴν ἔχοντα παρὰ τοὺς ἡμετέρους νόμους διαφοράν. οἱ μὲν γὰρ τὰς Ἑλληνικὰς καταστησάμενοι πολιτείας βραχύν τινα κομιδῇ χρόνον ἔταξαν ἄρχεσθαι τοὺς παῖδας ὑπὸ τῶν πατέρων, οἱ μὲν ἕως τρίτον ἐκπληρώσωσιν ἀφ’ ἥβης ἔτος, οἱ δὲ ὅσον ἂν χρόνον ἠίθεοι μένωσιν, οἱ δὲ μέχρι τῆς εἰς τὰ ἀρχεῖα τὰ δημόσια ἐγγραφῆς, ὡς ἐκ τῆς Σόλωνος καὶ Πιττακοῦ καὶ Χαρώνδου νομοθεσίας ἔμαθον, οἷς πολλὴ μαρτυρεῖται σοφία· τιμωρίας τε κατὰ τῶν παίδων ἔταξαν, ἐὰν ἀπειθῶσι τοῖς πατράσιν, οὐ βαρείας ἐξελάσαι τῆς οἰκίας ἐπιτρέψαντες αὐτοὺς καὶ χρήματα μὴ καταλιπεῖν, περαιτέρω δὲ οὐδέν. εἰσὶ δ’ οὐχ ἱκαναὶ κατασχεῖν ἄνοιαν νεότητος καὶ αὐθάδειαν τρόπων οὐδ’ εἰς τὸ σῶφρον ἀγαγεῖν τοὺς ἠμεληκότας τῶν καλῶν αἱ μαλακαὶ τιμωρίαι· τοιγάρτοι πολλὰ ἐν Ἕλλησιν ὑπὸ τέκνων εἰς πατέρας ἀσχημονεῖται. ὁ δὲ τῶν Ῥωμαίων νομοθέτης ἅπασαν ὡς εἰπεῖν ἔδωκεν ἐξουσίαν πατρὶ καθ’ υἱοῦ καὶ παρὰ πάντα τὸν τοῦ βίου χρόνον, ἐάν τε εἴργειν, ἐάν τε μαστιγοῦν, ἐάν τε δέσμιον ἐπὶ τῶν κατ’ ἀγρὸν ἔργων κατέχειν, ἐάν τε ἀποκτιννύναι προαιρῆται, κἂν τὰ πολιτικὰ πράττων ὁ παῖς ἤδη τυγχάνῃ κἂν ἐν ἀρχαῖς ταῖς μεγίσταις ἐξεταζόμενος κἂν διὰ τὴν εἰς τὰ κοινὰ φιλοτιμίαν ἐπαινούμενος.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 2.26.1-4)

These, then, are the excellent laws which Romulus enacted concerning women, by which he rendered them more observant of propriety in relation to their husbands. But those he established with respect to reverence and dutifulness of children toward their parents, to the end that they should honour and obey them in all things, both in their words and actions, were still more august and of greater dignity and vastly superior to our laws. For those who established the Greek constitutions set a very short time for sons to be under the rule of their fathers, some till the expiration of the third year after they reached manhood, others as long as they continued unmarried, and some till their names were entered in the public registers, as I have learned from the laws of Solon, Pittacus and Charondas, men celebrated for their great wisdom. The punishments, also, which they ordered for disobedience in children toward their parents were not grievous: for they permitted fathers to turn their sons out of doors and to disinherit them, but nothing further. But mild punishments are not sufficient to restrain the folly of youth and its stubborn ways or to give self-control to those who have been heedless of all that is honourable; and accordingly among the Greeks many unseemly deeds are committed by children against their parents. But the lawgiver of the Romans gave virtually full power to the father over his son, even during his whole life, whether he thought proper to imprison him, to scourge him, to put him in chains and keep him at work in the fields, or to put him to death, and this even though the son were already engaged in public affairs, though he were numbered among the highest magistrates, and though he were celebrated for his zeal for the commonwealth. (tr. Earnest Cary)

Harpasas

Tarquin_and_the_Eagle
Helene Guerber, Tarquin and the eagle

Καὶ μετ’ οὐ πολὺν χρόνον ὁ μὲν πρεσβύτερος αὐτοῦ τῶν παίδων γένος οὐδὲν καταλιπὼν ἐμφανὲς ἀποθνήσκει. καὶ μετ’ ὀλίγας ἡμέρας αὐτὸς ὁ Δημάρατος ὑπὸ λύπης τελευτᾷ κληρονόμον ἁπάσης τῆς οὐσίας τὸν περιλειπόμενον τῶν παίδων Λοκόμωνα καταλιπών· ὃς παραλαβὼν τὸν πατρικὸν πλοῦτον μέγαν ὄντα πολιτεύεσθαί τε καὶ τὰ κοινὰ πράττειν καὶ ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις τῶν ἀστῶν εἶναι προῄρητο. ἀπελαυνόμενος δὲ πανταχόθεν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων καὶ οὐχ ὅπως ἐν τοῖς πρώτοις ἀριθμούμενος, ἀλλ’ οὐδ’ ἐν τοῖς μέσοις, ἀνιαρῶς ἔφερε τὴν ἀτιμίαν. ἀκούων δὲ περὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων πόλεως, ὅτι πάντας ἀσμένως ὑποδεχομένη τοὺς ξένους ἀστοὺς ποιεῖται καὶ τιμᾷ κατὰ τὴν ἀξίαν ἕκαστον, ἐκεῖ μετενέγκασθαι τὴν οἴκησιν ἔγνω τά τε χρήματα πάντα συσκευασάμενος καὶ τὴν γυναῖκα ἐπαγόμενος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων φίλων καὶ οἰκείων τοὺς βουλομένους· ἐγένοντο δὲ οἱ συναπαίρειν αὐτῷ προθυμηθέντες συχνοί. ὡς δὲ κατὰ τὸ καλούμενον Ἰανίκολον ἦσαν, ὅθεν ἡ Ῥώμη τοῖς ἀπὸ Τυρρηνίας ἐρχομένοις πρῶτον ἀφορᾶται, καταπτὰς ἀετὸς ἄφνω καὶ τὸν πῖλον αὐτοῦ τὸν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς κείμενον ἁρπάσας, ἀνέπτη πάλιν ἄνω κατὰ τὴν ἐγκύκλιον αἰώραν φερόμενος καὶ εἰς τὸ βάθος τοῦ περιέχοντος ἀέρος ἀπέκρυψεν· ἔπειτ’ ἐξαίφνης ἐπιτίθησι τῷ Λοκόμωνι τὸν πῖλον ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἁρμόσας ὡς πρότερον ἥρμοστο. θαυμαστοῦ δὲ καὶ παραδόξου πᾶσι τοῦ σημείου φανέντος ἡ γυνὴ τοῦ Λοκόμωνος ὄνομα Τανακύλλα ἐμπειρίαν ἱκανὴν ἐκ πατέρων ἔχουσα τῆς Τυρρηνικῆς οἰωνοσκοπίας, λαβοῦσα μόνον αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν συνόντων ἠσπάσατό τε καὶ ἀγαθῶν ἐλπίδων ἐνέπλησεν ὡς ἐξ ἰδιωτικῆς τύχης εἰς ἐξουσίαν βασιλικὴν ἐλευσόμενον. σκοπεῖν μέντοι συνεβούλευεν ὅπως παρ’ ἑκόντων λήψεται Ῥωμαίων τὴν ἡγεμονίαν ἄξιον τῆς τιμῆς ταύτης ἑαυτὸν παρασχών.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 3.47)

Not long afterward the elder of his sons died without acknowledged issue, and a few days later Demaratus himself died of grief, leaving his surviving son Lucumo heir to his entire fortune. Lucumo, having thus inherited the great wealth of his father, had aspired to public life and a part in the administration of the commonwealth and to be one of its foremost citizens. But being repulsed on every side by the native-born citizens and excluded, not only from the first, but even from the middle rank, he resented his disfranchisement. And hearing that the Romans gladly received all strangers and made them citizens, he resolved to get together all his riches and remove thither, taking with him his wife and such of his friends and household as wished to go along; and those who were eager to depart with him were many. When they were come to the hill called Janiculum, from which Rome is first discerned by those who come from Tyrrhenia, an eagle, descending on a sudden, snatched his cap from his head and flew up again with it, and rising in a circular flight, hid himself in the depths of the circumambient air, then of a sudden replaced the cap on his head, fitting it on as it had been before. This prodigy appearing wonderful and extraordinary to them all, the wife of Lucumo, Tanaquil by name, who had a good understanding standing, through her ancestors, of the Tyrrhenians’ augural science, took him aside from the others and, embracing him, filled him with great hopes of rising from his private station to the royal power. She advised him, however, to consider by what means he might render himself worthy to receive the sovereignty by the free choice of the Romans. (tr. Earnest Cary)

Lukaina

598px-Rubens,_Peter_Paul_-_Romulus_and_Remus_-_1614-1616
Peter Paul Rubens, Romulus en Remus, ca. 1615

Περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐκ τῆς Ἰλίας γενομένων Κόιντος μὲν Φάβιος ὁ Πίκτωρ λεγόμενος, ᾧ Λεύκιός τε Κίγκιος καὶ Κάτων Πόρκιος καὶ Πείσων Καλπούρνιος καὶ τῶν ἄλλων συγγραφέων οἱ πλείους ἠκολούθησαν, γέγραφε· ὡς κελεύσαντος Ἀμολίου τὰ βρέφη λαβόντες ἐν σκάφῃ κείμενα τῶν ὑπηρετῶν τινες ἔφερον ἐμβαλοῦντες εἰς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπέχοντα τῆς πόλεως ἀμφὶ τοὺς ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι σταδίους. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐγγὺς ἐγένοντο καὶ εἶδον ἔξω τοῦ γνησίου ῥείθρου τὸν Τέβεριν ὑπὸ χειμώνων συνεχῶν ἐκτετραμμένον εἰς τὰ πεδία, καταβάντες ἀπὸ τοῦ Παλλαντίου τῆς κορυφῆς ἐπὶ τὸ προσεχέστατον ὕδωρ, (οὐ γὰρ ἔτι προσωτέρω χωρεῖν οἷοίτε ἦσαν), ἔνθα πρῶτον ἡ τοῦ ποταμοῦ πλήμη τῆς ὑπωρείας ἥπτετο, τίθενται τὴν σκάφην ἐπὶ τοῦ ὕδατος. Ἡ δὲ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐνήχετο, ἔπειτα τοῦ ῥείθρου κατὰ μικρὸν ὑποχωροῦντος ἐκ τῶν περιεσχάτων λίθου προσπταίσει περιτραπεῖσα ἐκβάλλει τὰ βρέφη. τὰ μὲν δὴ κνυζούμενα κατὰ τοῦ τέλματος ἐκυλινδεῖτο, λύκαινα δέ τις ἐπιφανεῖσα νεοτόκος σπαργῶσα τοὺς μαστοὺς ὑπὸ γάλακτος ἀνεδίδου τὰς θηλὰς τοῖς στόμασιν αὐτῶν καὶ τῇ γλώττῃ τὸν πηλόν, ᾧ κατάπλεοι ἦσαν, ἀπελίχμα. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ τυγχάνουσιν οἱ νομεῖς ἐξελαύνοντες τὰς ἀγέλας ἐπὶ νομήν (ἤδη γὰρ ἐμβατὸν ἦν τὸ χωρίον) καί τις αὐτῶν ἰδὼν τὴν λύκαιναν ὡς ἠσπάζετο τὰ βρέφη τέως μὲν ἀχανὴς ἦν ὑπό τε θάμβους καὶ ἀπιστίας τῶν θεωρουμένων· ἔπειτ’ ἀπελθὼν καὶ συλλέξας ὅσους ἐδύνατο πλείστους τῶν ἀγχοῦ νεμόντων (οὐ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετο λέγων) ἄγει τοὖργον αὐτὸ θεασομένους. ὡς δὲ κἀκεῖνοι πλησίον ἐλθόντες ἔμαθον τὴν μὲν ὥσπερ τέκνα περιέπουσαν, τὰ δ’ ὡς μητρὸς ἐξεχόμενα, δαιμόνιόν τι χρῆμα ὁρᾶν ὑπολαβόντες ἐγγυτέρω προσῄεσαν ἀθρόοι δεδιττόμενοι βοῇ τὸ θηρίον. ἡ δὲ λύκαινα οὐ μάλα ἀγριαίνουσα τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῇ προσόδῳ, ἀλλ’ ὡσπερὰν χειροήθης ἀποστᾶσα τῶν βρεφῶν ἠρέμα καὶ κατὰ πολλὴν ἀλογίαν τοῦ ποιμενικοῦ ὁμίλου ἀπῄει.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 1.79.4-7)

But concerning the babes born of Ilia, Quintus Fabius, called Pictor, whom Lucius Cincius, Porcius Cato, Calpurnius Piso and most of the other historians have followed, writes thus: By the order of Amulius some of his servants took the babes in an ark and carried them to the river, distant about a hundred and twenty stades from the city, with the intention of throwing them into it. But when they drew near and perceived that the Tiber, swollen by continual rains, had left its natural bed and overflowed the plains, they came down from the top of the Palatine hill to that part of the water that lay nearest (for they could no longer advance any farther) and set down the ark upon the flood where it washed the foot of the hill. The ark floated for some time, and then, as the waters retired by degrees from their extreme limits, it struck against a stone and, overturning, threw out the babes, who lay whimpering and wallowing in the mud. Upon this, a she-wolf that had just whelped appeared and, her udder being distended with milk, gave them her paps to suck and with her tongue licked off the mud with which they were besmeared. In the meantime the herdsmen happened to be driving their flocks forth to pasture (for the place was now become passable) and one of them, seeing the wolf thus fondling the babes, was for some time struck dumb with astonishment and disbelief of what he saw. Then going away and getting together as many as he could of his fellows who kept their herds near at hand (for they would not believe what he said), he led them to see the sight themselves. When these also drew near and saw the wolf caring for the babes as if they had been her young and the babes clinging to her as to their mother, they thought they were beholding a supernatural sight and advanced in a body, shouting to terrify the creature. The wolf, however, far from being provoked at the approach of the men, but as if she had been tame, withdrew gently from the babes and went away, paying little heed to the rabble of shepherds. (tr. Earnest Cary)

Loupa

1024px-Mignard_-_The_Shepherd_Faustulus_Bringing_Romulus_and_Remus_to_His_Wife
Nicolas Mignard, Le berger Faustulus amenant Romulus et Remus a sa femme (1654)

Τήν τε τιθηνησαμένην τὰ παιδία καὶ μαστοὺς ἐπισχοῦσαν οὐ λύκαιναν εἶναί φασιν, ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ εἰκὸς γυναῖκα τῷ Φαιστύλῳ συνοικοῦσαν Λαυρεντίαν ὄνομα, ᾗ δημοσιευούσῃ ποτὲ τὴν τοῦ σώματος ὥραν οἱ περὶ τὸ Παλλάντιον διατρίβοντες ἐπίκλησιν ἔθεντο τὴν Λούπαν· ἔστι δὲ τοῦτο Ἑλληνικόν τε καὶ ἀρχαῖον ἐπὶ ταῖς μισθαρνούσαις τἀφροδίσια τιθέμενον, αἳ νῦν εὐπρεπεστέρᾳ κλήσει ἑταῖραι προσαγορεύονται. ἀγνοοῦντας δέ τινας αὐτὸ πλάσαι τὸν περὶ τῆς λυκαίνης μῦθον, ἐπειδὴ κατὰ τὴν γλῶτταν, ἣν τὸ Λατίνων ἔθνος φθέγγεται, λούπα καλεῖται τοῦτο τὸ θηρίον.
(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Rhōmaikē Archaiologia 1.84.4)

They say, moreover, that the one who nursed and suckled them was not a she-wolf, but, as may well be supposed, a woman, the wife of Faustulus, named Laurentia, who, having formerly prostituted her beauty, had received from the people living round the Palatine hill the nickname of Lupa*. This is an ancient Greek226 term applied p291 to women who prostitute themselves for gain; but they are now called by a more respectable name, hetaerae or “companions.” But some who were ignorant of this invented the myth of the she-wolf, this animal being called in the Latin tongue lupa.

Cf. Livy i. 4, 7. lupa is found in various Latin authors in the sense of “prostitute,” and lupanar means “brothel.”
** It would seem as if “Greek” must be an error here for “Latin.” Not even the Greek equivalent of lupa (λύκαινα) is found used in this sense. Hesychius’ gloss, λύπτα (for λύππα?)· ἑταίρα, πόρνη, may well have been taken from some Roman history.

(tr. Earnest Cary, with his notes)

Kakophōnotatōn

06505-shipwreck_turner

Part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

βιαζόμενον δέ τινα πρὸς ἐναντίον ῥεῦμα ποταμοῦ μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων καὶ τὰ μὲν ἀντέχοντα, τὰ δ’ ὑποφερόμενον εἰσάγων ἀνακοπάς τε ποιήσει συλλαβῶν καὶ ἀναβολὰς χρόνων καὶ ἀντιστηριγμοὺς γραμμάτων

δεινὸν δ’ ἀμφ’ Ἀχιλῆα κυκώμενον ἵστατο κῦμα,
ὤθει δ’ ἐν σάκεϊ πίπτων ῥόος, οὐδὲ πόδεσσιν
εἶχε στηρίξασθαι. [Il. 21.240ss.]

ἀραττομένων δὲ περὶ πέτρας ἀνθρώπων ψόφον τε καὶ μόρον οἰκτρὸν ἐπιδεικνύμενος ἐπὶ τῶν ἀηδεστάτων τε καὶ κακοφωνοτάτων χρονιεῖ γραμμάτων οὐδαμῇ λεαίνων τὴν κατασκευὴν οὐδὲ ἡδύνων·

σύν τε δύω μάρψας ὥστε σκύλακας προτὶ γαίῃ
κόπτ’· ἐκ δ’ ἐγκέφαλος χαμάδις ῥέε, δεῦε δὲ γαῖαν. [Od. 9.289s.]

πολὺ ἂν ἔργον εἴη λέγειν, εἰ πάντων παραδείγματα βουλοίμην φέρειν ὧν ἄν τις ἀπαιτήσειε κατὰ τὸν τόπον τόνδε· ὥστε ἀρκεσθεὶς τοῖς εἰρημένοις ἐπὶ τὰ ἑξῆς μεταβήσομαι.

(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Peri Suntheseōs Onomatōn 16.99-100)

And when he depicts a warrior in full armour forcing his way forward against the contrary current of a river, now holding his own, now being carried off his feet, he will introduce clashings of syllables, delays in the rhythm, and letters which hold up the flow:

Around Achilles swirled a terrible tempestuous wave:
Its current dashed against his shield and swept away his feet
From their firm stance.

When men are being dashed against rocks, and he is portraying the noise and their pitiable fate, he will dwell on the most unpleasant and ill-sounding letters, nowhere attempting to make the arrangement smooth or attractive:

A pair of them he snatched and dashed, like puppies on the ground.
Their brains flowed freely on the floor and incarnadined the rocks

It would be a long task if I should set myself to produce examples of all the usages that might be required to illustrate this subject. I shall therefore content myself with what has been said and proceed to the next topic.

(tr. Stephen Usher)

Dusekphorōtata

800px-odysseus_and_nausicaa

Part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

ὅταν δ’ οἰκτρὰν ἢ φοβερὰν ἢ ἀγέρωχον ὄψιν εἰσάγῃ, τῶν τε φωνηέντων οὐ τὰ κράτιστα θήσει ἀλλὰ <τὰ δυσηχέστατα, καὶ> τῶν ψοφοειδῶν ἢ ἀφώνων τὰ δυσεκφορώτατα λήψεται καὶ καταπυκνώσει τούτοις τὰς συλλαβάς, οἷά ἐστι ταυτί

σμερδαλέος δ’ αὐτῇσι φάνη κεκακωμένος ἅλμῃ. [Od. 6.137]

τῇ δ’ ἐπὶ μὲν Γοργῲ βλοσυρῶπις ἐστεφάνωτο
δεινὸν δερκομένη, περὶ δὲ Δεῖμός τε Φόβος τε. [Il. 11.36s.]

ποταμῶν δέ γε σύρρυσιν εἰς χωρίον ἓν καὶ πάταγον ὑδάτων ἀναμισγομένων ἐκμιμήσασθαι τῇ λέξει βουλόμενος οὐκ ἐργάσεται λείας συλλαβὰς ἀλλ’ ἰσχυρὰς καὶ ἀντιτύπους

ὡς δ’ ὅτε χείμαρροι ποταμοὶ κατ’ ὄρεσφι ῥέοντες
ἐς μισγάγκειαν συμβάλλετον ὄβριμον ὕδωρ. [Il. 4.452s.]

(Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Peri Suntheseōs Onomatōn 16.98-99)

But when he is introducing a scene that is pitiable, frightening or august, he will not employ the finest of the vowels, but will take <the most unpleasant-sounding and> those of the fricatives and the voiceless consonants that are the most difficult to pronounce and crowd his syllables with these, as in these lines:

He burst on them, a fearsome sight, all uglified with brine.

A Gorgon’s head of baleful mien embossed the centre orb
With Fear and Panic ranged around her terrifying glare.

When he wishes to represent in words the flowing together of rivers into one place and the noisy splash of mingling torrents, he will not render this with smooth syllables, but with strong and resounding ones:

E’en as the winter-swollen rivers rush from hillsides steep,
They hurl their torrents wild into the watersmeet below.

(tr. Stephen Usher)