Lamprotēs

oratoria

Μετὰ τὸν περὶ σεμνότητός τε καὶ τραχύτητος λόγον ἔτι τε σφοδρότητος ἀναγκαῖον εἰπεῖν περὶ λαμπρότητος. τῶν γὰρ ποιουσῶν τὸ μέγεθός τε καὶ τὸ ἀξίωμα τῷ λόγῳ ἰδεῶν ἐν τοῖς μάλιστά ἐστιν ἡ λαμπρότης. τά τε ἄλλα γὰρ ἀναγκαία ἡ ἰδέα τῷ ἀξιωματικῷ λόγῳ καὶ ὅτι δεῖ τῷ σεμνῷ τε καὶ τραχεῖ καὶ σφοδρῷ προσεἰναί τι πάντως καὶ φαιδρότητος, ἵνα μὴ πάντῃ αὐστηρὸς ᾖ· φαιδρότητος δὲ οὐ τῆς ἐν ὡραισμῷ, ἣ δὴ γλυκύτητός τε καὶ ἀφελείας ἐστίν, οὐδὲ τῆς κατʼ ἐπιμέλειαν συνθήκης κάλλος ἐχούσης τι—καίπερ γὰρ ὄν κομμωτικὸν τὸ τοιοῦτο καὶ πλεονάζον παρὰ τῷ ῥήτορι ὅμως λεπτόν ἐστι καὶ οὐκ ἔχει δίαρμα οὐδὲ μέγεθος—, οὔκουν ταύτης δεῖ τῆς φαιδρότητος τῷ μεγέθει ὡς καθʼ αὐτό, ἀλλὰ τῆς ἀξιωματικῆς· ταύτην δὲ ποιεῖ ἡ λαμπρότης, περὶ ἧς ῥητέον. περὶ γὰρ τοῦ ἐναντίου εἴδους τῇ λαμπρότητι κἀν τῷ περὶ σφοδρότητος εἰρήκαμεν, ὅτι ἐστὶ τὸ κομματικὸν καὶ διαλεκτικὸν καὶ ὄντως ἀγωνιστικὸν εἶδος τοῦ λόγου καὶ ὅλως τὸ γοργόν. γίνεται τοίνυν λόγος λαμπρὸς κατὰ ἔννοιαν μέν, ὅταν πεποίθησιν ἔχῃ τινὰ ὁ λέγων, ἐφ’ οἷς ἄν λέγῃ, ἢ διὰ τὸ ἔνδοξα εἶναι ἢ διὰ τὸ καλῶς πεπρᾶχθαι αὐτῷ ἢ διὰ τὸ χαίρειν τοῖς λεγομένοις τούς ἀκούοντας ἢ καὶ διὰ πάντα ταῦτα· ὅλως τε ἐπὶ τοῖς διαπρεπέσι τῶν ἔργων καὶ ἐφ’ οἷς ἔστι λαμπρύνεσθαι ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὅπερ φησὶν Ἡρόδοτος ἐλλάμψασθαι, ἐπὶ τούτοις ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ λαμπρότης· γίνεται τοίνυν λόγος λαμπρὸς κατὰ ἔννοιαν μέν, ὅταν πεποίθησιν ἔχῃ τινὰ ὁ λέγων, ἐφ’ οἷς ἄν λέγῃ, ἢ διὰ τὸ ἔνδοξα εἶναι ἢ διὰ τὸ καλῶς πεπρᾶχθαι αὐτῷ ἢ διὰ τὸ χαίρειν τοῖς λεγομένοις τούς ἀκούοντας ἢ καὶ διὰ πάντα ταῦτα· ὅλως τε ἐπὶ τοῖς διαπρεπέσι τῶν ἔργων καὶ ἐφ’ οἷς ἔστι λαμπρύνεσθαι ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὅπερ φησὶν Ἡρόδοτος ἐλλάμψασθαι, ἐπὶ τούτοις ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ λαμπρότης· οἶον “οὐ λίθοις ἐτείχισα τὴν πόλιν οὐδὲ πλίνθοις ἐγώ, οὐδ’ ἐπὶ τούτοις μέγιστον τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ φρονῶ· ἀλλ’ ἐὰν βούλῃ τὸν ἐμὸν τειχισμόν” καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς, καὶ πάλιν “αὕτη τῶν περὶ Θήβας ἐγένετο πραγμάτων ἀρχὴ καὶ κατάστασις πρώτη, τὰ πρὸ τούτων εἰς ἔχθραν καὶ μῖσος καὶ ἀπιστίαν τῶν πόλεων ὑπηγμένων ὑπὸ τούτων. τοῦτο τὸ ψήφισμα τὸν τότε περιστάντα τῇ πόλει κίνδυνον παρελθεῖν ἐποίησεν ὥσπερ νέφος”, καὶ πάλιν “ταῦτα ἐποίουν οἱ ὑμέτεροι πρόγονοι, ταῦθ’ ὑμῶν οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, οἲ Λακεδαιμονίους καὶ τὰ ἐξῆς, καὶ πάλιν “ὑμεῖς τοίνυν, ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, Λακεδαιμονίων γῆς καὶ θαλάττης ἀρχόντων καὶ τὰ κύκλῳ τῆς Ἀττικῆς κατεχόντων ἁρμοσταῖς καὶ φρουραῖς, Εὔβοιαν, Τάναγραν, τὴν Βοιωτίαν ἅπασαν” καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς μέχρι τοῦ “ἐξήλθετε εἰς Ἁλίαρτον”. πολλὰ δὲ καὶ τοῦ τοιούτου παραδείγματα ἐν τῶ Περὶ τοῦ στεφάνου διὰ τὸ φύσει ἀξιωματικὸν τοῦ λόγου καὶ λαμπρόν. Ἀλλʼ ἔννοιαι μὲν αὗται καὶ αἰ τοιαῦται λαμπραί.
(Hermogenes, Peri Ideōn 1.9)

Having treated Solemnity, Asperity, and Vehemence, we must now discuss Brilliance. Of those types that produce Grandeur and dignity Brilliance is especially important. This type is necessary in a dignified speech for several reasons, but especially because a speech that is solemn and harsh and vehement also needs an element of luster, so that it will not be overly severe. I do not mean by this the kind of luster that is produced by adornment. That is characteristic of Sweetness and Simplicity. Nor am I talking about the kind that produces a beautiful effect through the care taken with the arrangement of words in the sentences. The latter kind of style is decorative and is often found in Demosthenes. It is nevertheless slight and does not produce elevation and Grandeur. To make the passage really elevated, therefore, you do not need the kinds of luster just discussed, but the kind that is truly dignified. That is Brilliance, which I will discuss now. We have already mentioned the kind of style that is the opposite of Brilliance in the discussion of Vehemence, where we said that it is conversational and argumentative, composed of short phrases, and generally quick-paced. Therefore, a passage is brilliant with reference to the thought when the speaker has some confidence in what he is saying, either because what he is saying is generally approved or because he has acted honorably or because his audience is pleased with what he is saying or for all these reasons. In general Brilliance is inherent in those acts that are remarkable and in which one can gain luster, or, as Herodotus says (1.80), in which one can “shine.” This is the case in the following passages from Demosthenes’ speech On the Crown: “I did not fortify the city with stones and with bricks, nor do I consider that the greatest of my achievements reside in such things. But if you want to see the fortifications that I build you will find weapons and cities” etc. (299) or “This was the beginning of our dealings with Thebes and the first negotiation, since before this these men had reduced our attitude toward the Thebans to hostility and hatred and distrust. This decree caused the danger surrounding the city to disappear like a cloud” (188) or “Your ancestors did this, the elders among you did it when they saved the Spartans,” etc. (98) or “You, therefore, Athenians, when the Spartans ruled by land and sea and were holding with governors and garrisons all the frontiers of Attica, as well as Euboea, Tanagra, and all Boeotia,” etc. up to “you set out to Haliartus” (96). And there are many examples of such a style in the speech On the Crown because it is by nature dignified and brilliant. These thoughts, then, and those like them are characteristic of Brilliance. (tr. Cecil W. Wooten III)

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