Philēmata

happy-kiss-day-2012-fresh-status-quotes-and-wallpapers8

This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

“Εἰ δὲ δεῖ μεθέντα τὰς μυθολογίας αὐτὴν εἰπεῖν τὴν ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις ἡδονήν, ἐγὼ μὲν πρωτόπειρος ὢν εἰς γυναῖκας, ὅσον ὁμιλῆσαι ταῖς εἰς Ἀφροδίτην πωλουμέναις· ἄλλος γὰρ ἂν ἴσως εἰπεῖν τι καὶ πλέον ἔχοι μεμυημένος· εἰρήσεται δέ μοι, κἂν μετρίως ἔχω πείρας. γυναικὶ μὲν οὖν ὑγρὸν μὲν τὸ σῶμα ἐν ταῖς συμπλοκαῖς, μαλθακὰ δὲ τὰ χείλη πρὸς τὰ φιλήματα. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μὲν ἔχει τὸ σῶμα ἐν τοῖς ἀγκαλίσμασιν, ἐν δὲ ταῖς σαρξὶν ὅλως ἐνηρμοσμένον, καὶ ὁ συγγινόμενος περιβάλλεται ἡδονῇ. ἐγγίζει δὲ τοῖς χείλεσιν ὥσπερ σφραγῖδας τὰ φιλήματα, φιλεῖ δὲ τέχνῃ καὶ σκευάζει τὸ φίλημα γλυκύτερον. οὐ γὰρ μόνον ἐθέλει φιλεῖν τοῖς χείλεσιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς ὀδοῦσι συμβάλλεται καὶ περὶ τὸ τοῦ φιλοῦντος στόμα βόσκεται καὶ δάκνει τὰ φιλήματα. ἔχει δέ τινα καὶ μαστὸς ἐπαφώμενος ἰδίαν ἡδονήν. ἐν δὲ τῇ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης ἀκμῇ οἰστρεῖ μὲν ὑφ’ ἡδονῆς, περικέχηνε δὲ φιλοῦσα καὶ μαίνεται. αἱ δὲ γλῶτται τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον φοιτῶσιν ἀλλήλαις εἰς ὁμιλίαν καὶ ὡς δύνανται βιάζονται κἀκεῖναι φιλεῖν· σὺ δὲ μείζονα ποιεῖς τὴν ἡδονὴν ἀνοίγων τὰ φιλήματα. πρὸς δὲ τὸ τέρμα αὐτὸ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης ἡ γυνὴ γενομένη πέφυκεν ἀσθμαίνειν ὑπὸ καυματώδους ἡδονῆς, τὸ δὲ ἄσθμα σὺν πνεύματι ἐρωτικῷ μέχρι τῶν τοῦ στόματος χειλέων ἀναθορὸν συντυγχάνει πλανωμένῳ τῷ φιλήματι καὶ ζητοῦντι καταβῆναι κάτω, ἀναστρέφον τε σὺν τῷ ἄσθματι τὸ φίλημα καὶ μιχθὲν ἕπεται καὶ βάλλει τὴν καρδίαν· ἡ δὲ ταραχθεῖσα τῷ φιλήματι πάλλεται. εἰ δὲ μὴ τοῖς σπλάγχνοις ἦν δεδεμένη, ἠκολούθησεν ἂν καὶ ἀνείλκυσεν αὑτὴν ἄνω τοῖς φιλήμασι. παίδων δὲ φιλήματα μὲν ἀπαίδευτα, περιπλοκαὶ δὲ ἀμαθεῖς, Ἀφροδίτη δὲ ἀργή, ἡδονῆς δὲ οὐδέν.”
(Achilles Tatius, Leukippē & Kleitophōn 2.37.5-10)

‘Now, if we must leave the realm of mythology and speak of the very pleasure of the act—well, my own experience with women is limited*, extending only to intimacy with those who put Aphrodite up for sale. Perhaps someone else who has been initiated might be able to comment in somewhat greater detail; but I shall speak nevertheless, moderate though my experience be. A woman’s body is doughy when you embrace it, her lips soft when you kiss them. This is why she can hold her companion’s body perfectly enfolded in her embraces, in her very flesh, and he is enveloped by pleasure. She places kisses onto your lips like the imprint of a seal. She kisses with art, and her techniques sweeten the kiss: for she is not content to kiss with her lips alone, but attacks with her teeth as well, nibbling around her lover’s mouth and kissing with bites. A hand on the breast, too, has its own particular pleasure. When Aphrodite’s peak is reached, the pleasure stings her into a frenzy: she goes crazy, her mouth gaping wide as she kisses. All this time tongues have been weaving in and out of one another,and they too are pressed into the job of kissing, in so far as they can: your job, meanwhile, is to increase the pleasure by opening your mouth. And as she comes in sight of Aphrodite’s own finishing-post the woman naturally pants with blazing pleasure: when her gasp is driven up by erotic exhalation as far as the lips of the mouth, it meets with the roaming kiss as it seeks to penetrate down below; the kiss is whirled around and blended with the gasp, then it follows it back down and strikes a blow to the heart, which is convulsed by the kiss and begins to palpitate. Were the heart not bound to the innards, it would pursue the kisses and tear itself upwards. Boy’s kisses, though, are immature and uneducated; their embraces are unlearned, Aphrodite works lazily with them, there is no pleasure to be had.’

* An ironic variation on the standard rhetorical captatio benevolentiae ‘unaccostumed as I am to public speaking…’

(tr. Tim Whitmarsh, with his note)

Ouranion

Damiano Mazza, Il ratto di Ganimede, 1611-12
Damiano Mazza, Il ratto di Ganimede (1612)

This is part 1 of 3. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here.

Ὑπολαβὼν οὖν ἐγώ, “καὶ μὴν οὐράνιον,” ἔφην, “ἔοικεν εἶναι τὸ τῶν γυναικῶν κάλλος, ὅσον μὴ ταχὺ φθείρεται· ἐγγὺς γὰρ τοῦ θείου τὸ ἄφθαρτον. τὸ δὲ κινούμενον ἐν φθορᾷ θνητὴν φύσιν μιμούμενον, οὐκ οὐράνιόν ἐστιν ἀλλὰ πάνδημον. ἠράσθη μειρακίου Φρυγός, ἀνήγαγεν εἰς οὐρανοὺς τὸν Φρύγα· τὸ δὲ κάλλος τῶν γυναικῶν αὐτὸν τὸν Δία κατήγαγεν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ. διὰ γυναῖκά ποτε Ζεὺς ἐμυκήσατο, διὰ γυναῖκά ποτε Σάτυρον ὠρχήσατο, καὶ χρυσὸν πεποίηκεν ἑαυτὸν ἄλλῃ γυναικί. οἰνοχοείτω μὲν Γανυμήδης, μετὰ δὲ τῶν θεῶν Ἥρα πινέτω, ἵνα ἔχῃ μειράκιον διάκονον γυνή. ἐλεῶ δὲ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἁρπαγήν· ὄρνις ἐπ’ αὐτὸν κατέβη ὠμηστής, ὁ δὲ ἀνάρπαστος γενόμενος ὑβρίζεται καὶ ἔοικεν τυραννουμένῳ. καὶ τὸ θέαμά ἐστιν αἴσχιστον, μειράκιον ἐξ ὀνύχων κρεμάμενον. Σεμέλην δὲ εἰς οὐρανοὺς ἀνήγαγεν οὐκ ὄρνις ὠμηστής, ἀλλὰ πῦρ. καὶ μὴ θαυμάσῃς, εἰ διὰ πυρός τις ἀναβαίνει εἰς οὐρανόν· οὕτως ἀνέβη Ἡρακλῆς. εἰ δὲ Δανάης τὴν λάρνακα γελᾷς, πῶς τὸν Περσέα σιωπᾷς; Ἀλκμήνῃ δὲ τοῦτο μόνον δῶρον ἀρκεῖ, ὅτι δι’ αὐτὴν ἔκλεψεν ὁ Ζεὺς τρεῖς ὅλους ἡλίους.”
(Achilles Tatius, Leukippē & Kleitophōn 2.37.1-4)

‘But surely,’ I interjected, ‘women’s beauty would seem to be heavenly precisely in that it does not dissolve quickly: indestructibility and divinity, after all, are closely linked. Anything that moves in the realm of the perishable, in imitation of mortal nature, is not heavenly but vulgar. Yes, Zeus desired a Phrygian boy and took this Phrygian up to heaven; but the beauty of women brought Zeus himself down from heaven. It was for a woman’s sake that Zeus once lowed*, for a woman that he once performed a satyr’s dance**; for another woman, he even converted himself into gold***! I grant you, Ganymede may play wine-waiter to the gods; but you should remember that Hera also drinks with the gods, so Zeus’ wife has the boy as her servant. As for the manner of his rape, I pity that too: a flesh-eating bird swooped down upon him,and he was kidnapped and violated like a tyrant’s victim. A most disgraceful spectacle this, a lad hanging from the bird’s claws. Now as for Semele, it was no flesh-eating bird that snatched her up to heaven, but fire. You should not be too quick to disbelieve that someone could ascend to heaven through fire: that is how Heracles ascended****. And if you mock Danaë’s imprisonment in a chest, why so silent about Perseus*****? And as for Alcmene, well, Zeus’ gift to her (for her sake he robbed the world of three days******) was in itself enough to make her happy.

* I.e. turned into a bull, alluding to Zeus’ metamorphosis into a bull in the story of his rape of Europa.
** Zeus approached the Theban Antiope in the guise of a satyr (a comical rustic divinity, half-human and half-goat, usually depicted drunk and sexually aroused).
*** Zeus impregnated Danaë by covering her with a shower of gold.
**** According to one version of the myth (best-known through Sophocles’ Women of Trachis), Heracles was cremated on Mt. Oeta.
***** Perseus was also locked in the chest, so (Clitophon concludes) Zeus’ actions were not aimed specifically at the female.
****** Zeus was enjoying himself so much he prevented the sun from rising for three days, according to one version (Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History 4.9.2; Apollodorus, Library 2.4.8).

(tr. Tim Whitmarsh, with his notes)

 

Quisquilias

basket-of-fish

His actis et rebus meis in illo cubiculo conditis, pergens ipse ad balneas, ut prius aliquid nobis cibatui prospicerem, forum cuppedinis peto, inque eo piscatum opiparem expositum video et percontato pretio, quod centum nummis indicaret, aspernatus viginti denarios praestinaui. inde me commodum egredientem continatur Pythias condiscipulus apud Athenas Atticas meus, qui me post aliquantum multum temporis amanter agnitum invadit amplexusque ac comiter deosculatus: ‘mi Luci,’ ait ‘sat pol diu est quod intervisimus te, at hercules exinde cum a Clytio magistro digressi sumus. quae autem tibi causa peregrinationis huius?’ ‘crastino die scies,’ inquam ‘sed quid istud? voti gaudeo. nam et lixas et virgas et habitum prorsus magistratui congruentem in te video.’ ‘annonam curamus’ ait ‘et aedilem gerimus et si quid obsonare cupis utique commodabimus.’ abnuebam, quippe qui iam cenae affatim piscatum prospexeramus. sed enim Pythias visa sportula succussisque in aspectum planiorem piscibus: ‘at has quisquilias quanti parasti?’ ‘vix’ inquam ‘piscatori extorsimus accipere viginti denarium.’ quo audito statim arrepta dextera postliminio me in forum cuppedinis reducens: ‘et a quo’ inquit ‘istorum nugamenta haec comparasti?’ demonstro seniculum—in angulo sedebat—quem confestim pro aedilitatis imperio voce asperrima increpans: ‘iam iam’ inquit ‘nec amicis quidem nostris vel omnino ullis hospitibus parcitis, quod tam magnis pretiis pisces frivolos indicatis et florem Thessalicae regionis ad instar solitudinis et scopuli edulium caritate deducitis? sed non impune. iam enim faxo scias quem ad modum sub meo magisterio mali debeant coerceri’, et profusa in medium sportula iubet officialem suum insuper pisces inscendere ac pedibus suis totos obterere. qua contentus morum severitudine meus Pythias ac mihi ut abirem suadens: ‘sufficit mihi, o Luci,’ inquit ‘seniculi tanta haec contumelia.’ his actis consternatus ac prorsus obstupidus ad balneas me refero, prudentis condiscipuli valido consilio et nummis simul privatus et cena, lautusque ad hospitium Milonis ac dehinc cubiculum me reporto.
(Apuleius, Met. 1.24.3-25.6)

Once this was under way, and my belongings placed in the room, I set off for the baths alone. But first I headed for the market, wanting to secure my supper. I saw plenty of fine fish on display, but when I asked the price and was told what they cost I haggled, buying a gold coin’s worth for twenty per cent less. Just as I was moving on, I encountered Pythias, who had been a student with me in Athens . He recognised me and gave me a friendly embrace though it had all been long ago, rushing up and kissing me affectionately. “By Pollux, Lucius my friend it is ages since I saw you last. It was when we said goodbye to Clytius our teacher, by Hercules. What brings you here in your travels?” “I’ll tell you tomorrow,” I said “but what’s this? Congratulations! You’ve attendants with rods of office, and you’re dressed as a magistrate.” “I’m the inspector of markets, controller of supplies, and if you want help in purchasing anything I’m your man.” “Thanks, but there’s no need,” I said, having bought enough fish for supper, but Pythias saw my basket and poked the fish to inspect them. “What did you pay for this stuff?” he asked. “I twisted the man’s arm and he charged me twenty denarii” I answered. On hearing this he grabbed my arm, and dragged me back to the market. “Which of the fish-merchants,” he said “did you buy that rubbish from?” I pointed out a little old man sitting in a corner, and Pythias immediately began berating him in the harsh tones befitting authority. “Now, you even cheat visitors, like this friend of mine. You mark up worthless goods to stupid prices, and reduce Hypata, the flower of Thessaly, to the equivalent of a barren rock in the desert, with the costliness of your wares. But don’t think you’ll get away with it. I’ll show you how this magistrate deals with rogues.” And he emptied my basket out on the pavement, and ordered an assistant to crush them to pulp with his feet. Satisfied with this stern display of morality, my friend Pythias advised me to leave, saying: “Lucius, it’s enough that I’ve chastised the fellow.” Astonished, utterly stupefied, by this turn of events, I carried on to the baths, robbed of money and supper by the worldly-wise authoritativeness of my erstwhile fellow-student. After bathing, I returned to Milo’s house and my room. (tr. Anthony S. Kline)

Antiquiores

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Scytharum gens antiquissima semper habita, quamquam inter Scythas et Aegyptios diu contentio de generis vetustate fuerit: Aegyptiis praedicantibus, initio rerum, cum aliae terrae nimio fervore solis arderent, aliae rigerent frigoris immanitate, ita ut non modo primae generare homines, sed ne advenas quidem recipere ac tueri possent, priusquam adversus calorem vel frigus velamenta corporis invenirentur vel locorum vitia quaesitis arte remediis mollirentur, Aegyptum ita temperatam semper fuisse, ut neque hiberna frigora nec aestivi solis ardores incolas eius premerent, solum ita fecundum, ut alimentorum in usum hominum nulla terra feracior fuerit: iure igitur ibi primum homines natos videri debere, ubi educari facillime possent. contra Scythae caeli temperamentum nullum esse vetustatis argumentum putabant, quippe naturam, cum primum incrementa caloris ac frigoris regionibus distinxit, statim ad locorum patientiam animalia quoque generasse, sed et arborum ac frugum pro regionum condicione apte genera variata; et quanto Scythis sit caelum asperius quam Aegyptiis, tanto et corpora et ingenia esse duriora. ceterum si mundi quae nunc partes sunt, aliquando unitas fuit, sive illuvies aquarum principio rerum terras obrutas tenuit, sive ignis, qui et mundum genuit, cuncta possedit, utriusque primordiis Scythas origine praestare. nam si ignis prima possessio rerum fuit, qui paulatim extinctus sedem terris dedit, nullam prius quam septentrionalem partem hiemis rigore ab igne secretam, adeo ut nunc quoque nulla magis rigeat frigoribus; Aegyptum vero et totum Orientem tardissime temperatum, quippe qui etiam nunc torrenti calore solis exaestuet. quodsi omnes quondam terrae submersae profundo fuerunt, profecto editissimam quamque partem decurrentibus aquis primum detectam; humillimo autem solo eandem aquam diutissime immoratam; et quanto prior quaeque pars terrarum siccata sit, tanto prius animalia generare coepisse. porro Scythiam adeo editiorem omnibus terris esse, ut cuncta flumina ibi nata in Maeotim, tum deinde in Ponticum et Aegyptium mare decurrant; Aegyptum autem, quae tot regum, tot saeculorum cura impensaque munita sit et adversum vim incurrentium aquarum tantis structa molibus, tot fossis concisa, ut, cum his arceantur, illis recipiantur aquae, nihilo minus coli nisi excluso Nilo non potuerit nec possit, videri hominum vetustate ultima, quae ex aggerationibus regum sive Nili trahentis limum terrarum recentissima videatur. his igitur argumentis superatis Aegyptiis antiquiores semper Scythae visi.
(Justinus, Epitome Pompeii Trogi 2.1.5-21)

The nation of the Scythians was always regarded as very ancient; though there was long a dispute between them and the Egyptians concerning the antiquity of their respective races; the Egyptians alleging that, “In the beginning of things, when some countries were parched with the excessive heat of the sun, and others frozen with extremity of cold, so that, in their early condition, they were not only unable to produce human beings, but were incapable even of receiving and supporting such as came from other parts (before coverings for the body were found out against heat and cold, or the inconveniences of countries corrected by artificial remedies), Egypt was always so temperate, that neither the cold in winter nor the sun’s heat in summer, incommoded its inhabitants; and its soil so fertile, that no land was ever more productive of food for the use of man; and that, consequently, men must reasonably be considered to have been first produced in that country, where they could most easily be nourished.” The Scythians, on the other hand, thought that the temperateness of the air was no argument of antiquity; “because Nature, when she first distributed to different countries degrees of heat and cold, immediately produced in them animals fitted to endure the several climates, and generated also numerous sorts of trees and herbs, happily varied according to the condition of the places in which they grew; and that, as the Scythians have a sharper air than the Egyptians, so are their bodies and constitutions in proportion more hardy. But that if the world, which is now distinguished into parts of a different nature, was once uniform throughout; whether a deluge of waters originally kept the earth buried under it; or whether fire, which also produced the world, had possession of all the parts of it, the Scythians, under either supposition as to the primordial state of things, had the advantage as to origin. For if fire was at first predominant over all things, and, being gradually extinguished, gave place to the earth, no part of it would be sooner separated from the fire, by the severity of winter cold, than the northern, since even now no part is more frozen with cold; but Egypt and all the east must have been the latest to cool, as being now burnt up with the parching heat of the sun. But if originally all the earth were sunk under water, assuredly the highest parts would be first uncovered when the waters decreased, and the water must have remained longest in the lowest grounds; while the sooner any portion of the earth was dry, the sooner it must have begun to produce animals; but Scythia was so much higher than all other countries, that all the rivers which rise in it run down into the Maeotis, and then into the Pontic and Egyptian seas; whereas Egypt, (which, though it had been fenced by the care and expense of so many princes and generations, and furnished with such strong mounds against the violence of the encroaching waters, and though it had been intersected also by so many canals, the waters being kept out by the one, and retained by the other, was yet uninhabitable, unless the Nile were excluded,) could not be thought to have been the most anciently peopled; being a land, which, whether from the accessions of soil collected by its kings, or those from the Nile, bringing mud with it, must appear to have been the most recently formed of all lands.” The Egyptians being confounded with these arguments, the Scythians were always accounted the more ancient. (tr. John Selby Watson)

Lintea

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Marrucine Asini, manu sinistra
non belle uteris: in ioco atque vino
tollis lintea neglegentiorum.
hoc salsum esse putas? fugit te, inepte:
quamvis sordida res et invenusta est.
non credis mihi? crede Pollioni
fratri, qui tua furta vel talento
mutari velit: est enim leporum
dissertus puer ac facetiarum.
quare aut hendecasyllabos trecentos
exspecta, aut mihi linteum remitte;
quod me non movet aestimatione,
verum est mnemosynum mei sodalis.
nam sudaria Saetaba ex Hiberis
miserunt mihi muneri Fabullus
et Veranius: haec amem necesse est
ut Veraniolum meum et Fabullum.
(Catullus 12)

The use you put your left hand to,
when people are laughing and drinking, is far
from appealing. In fact, it is stealing—the napkins
of negligent diners, specifically. Clever?
You fool! It is stupid and vile. If you think
I would lie, the guy to ask is Pollio,
your brother and one who would happily pay
a talent to cancel your thefts if he could.
That boy is stuffed with wit and charm!
But you! Prepare for a torrent of versified
insults or else—surrender the napkin!
Its price is not what moves me so.
It is, in fact, a souvenir,
a Saetaban fabric Fabullus sent
from Spain as a gift, and Veranius too.
So I naturally love my napkin as well
as I love my Fabullus and little Verany.
(tr. David Mulroy)

Damastheis

Franz von Stuck, Luzifer, ca. 1890
Franz von Stuck, Luzifer (ca. 1890)

This is part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

Τοίη μὲν κείνων στρατιή, τοῖος δὲ τε ἀρχός,
Χριστὸς δ’ οὔτε μιν ἔσχεν ἀϊστώσας ἰότητι
ᾗ καὶ κόσμον ἔτευξεν ὅλον. καὶ τόνδ’ ἂν ὄλεσσεν
αἶψ’ ἐθέλων (χαλεπὴ δὲ Θεοῦ κοτέοντος ἄλυξις)
οὐδὲ μὲν οὐδ’ ἀνέηκεν ἐλεύθερον ἐχθρὸν ἐμεῖο,
ἀλλὰ μέσον μεθέηκεν ὁμῶς ἀγαθῶν τε κακῶν τε,
δῶκε δ’ ἐπ’ ἀλλήλοισι κακὸν μόθον, ὡς ὁ μὲν αἰνὸν
αἶσχος ἔχῃ καὶ τῇδε, χερείονί περ πτολεμίζων,
οἱ δ’ ἀρετῇ μογέοντες ἑὸν κλέος αἰὲν ἔχωσιν,
ὡς χρυσὸς χοάνοισι καθαιρόμενοι βιότοιο
ἢ τάχα κεν μετέπειτα δίκας τίσειεν ἀτειρής,
ὕλης δαπτομένης, ὅτε ἔμπυρός ἐστιν ἄμειψις,
πολλὰ πάροιθεν ἑοῖσιν ἐνὶ δρηστῆρσι δαμασθεὶς
τειρομένοις· τὸ γάρ ἐστι κακῶν γεννήτορι τίσις.
ταῦτα μὲν ἀγγελικῆς αἴγλης πέρι Πνεῦμ’ ἐδίδαξε
πρώτης θ’ ὑστατίης τε. μέτρον δέ τε κἀνθάδ’ ἀνεῦρον,
μέτρον δ’ αὖ Θεός ἐστιν. ὅσον πελάει τις ἄνακτι,
τοσσάτιον φάος ἐστίν, ὅσον φάος, εὖχος ὁμοῖον.
(Gregory of Nazianzus, Poëmata Arcana 6.82-98)

Such is their army, such their leader. Christ did not by any act of will hold him in destruction, that will by which he had also created the whole world. Had he willed it, he could have annihilated Lucifer immediately (for it is hard to escape the anger of God). Yet it is not that he left my enemy in total freedom. Rather did he dismiss him to a midpoint between good and evil men. He provoked a dreadful struggle between Lucifer and humanity, that he might incur further awful shame, inasmuch as he was warring against a weaker opponent, whereas his human adversaries, striving through the exercise of goodness, might gain their everlasting glory, being purified like gold in the melting-pots of life. Perhaps also might Lucifer, for all his stubborn resistance, hereafter pay his penalty, his substance consumed, when there is requital by fire, though indeed he was to a great degree subdued before in the persons of his harried minions. These truths the Spirit has taught me concerning the radiance of angels, whether in first or later state. I have discovered even in this world a standard, and that standard, moreover, is God. The closer a man comes to the King, the more he is light and represents a corresponding glory. (tr. Donald A. Sykes)

Heōsphoros

Maestro degli angeli ribelli, Gli angeli ribelli, 14e eeuw
Anonymous (Sienese School), Gli angeli ribelli (14th c.)

This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

Πρώτη μὲν Θεότητος ἁγνὴ φύσις ἄτροπος αἰεί,
ἀνθ’ ἑνὸς οὔ ποτε πολλά. τί γὰρ Θεότητος ἄρειον
εἰς ὃ μετακλίνοιτο; τὸ δὲ πλέον ὄντος ἄλυξις.
δεύτερον ἀκροτάτοιο φάους μεγάλοι θεράποντες,
τόσσον πρωτοτύποιο καλοῦ πέλας, ὁσσάτιόν περ
αἰθὴρ ἠελίοιο. τὸ δὲ τρίτον ἠέρες ἡμεῖς.
εἰς πᾶν ἄτροπός ἐστι Θεοῦ φύσις. ἐς κακίην δὲ
δύστροπος ἀγγελική, καὶ τὸ τρίτον εὔτροπος ἡμεῖς,
ὅσσον τῆλε Θεοῖο, τόσον κακίῃ πελάοντες.
τοὔνεκεν ὁ πρώτιστος Ἑωσφόρος ὑψόσ’ ἀερθεὶς
(ἦ γὰρ δὴ μεγάλοιο Θεοῦ βασιληΐδα τιμὴν
ἤλπετο, κῦδος ἔχων περιώσιον) ὤλεσεν αἴγλην,
καὶ πέσεν ἐνθάδ’ ἄτιμος, ὅλον σκότος ἀντὶ Θεοῖο·
καὶ κοῦφός περ ἐὼν χθαμαλὴν ἐπὶ γαῖαν ὄλισθεν,
ἔνθεν ἀπεχθαίρει πινυτόφρονας, οὐρανίης δὲ
εἵργει πάντας ὁδοῖο, χολούμενος ἣν διὰ λώβην.
οὐδ’ ἐθέλει θεότητος, ὅθεν πέσεν, ἆσσον ἱκέσθαι
πλάσμα Θεοῦ. ξυνὴν γὰρ ἔχειν ἐπόθησε βροτοῖσιν
ἀμπλακίην σκοτίην τε. τὸ καὶ βαλεν ἐκ παραδείσου
κύδεος ἱμείροντας ὁ βάσκανος ἰσοθέοιο.
ὣς ἄρ’ ὅγ’ οὐρανίης ἐξ ἄντυγος ἦλθεν ἀερθείς·
ἀλλ’ οὐ μοῦνος ὄλισθεν, ἐπεὶ δέ μιν ὤλεσεν ὕβρις,
κάππεσε σὺν πλεόνεσσιν, ὅσους κακίην ἐδίδαξεν
(ὡς στρατὸν ἐκ βασιλῆος ἀπορρήξας τις ἀλιτρός),
βασκανίῃ τε χοροῖο θεόφρονος ὑψιμέδοντος,
καὶ πλεόνεσσι κακοῖσιν ἔχων πόθον ἐμβασιλεύειν.
ἔνθεν ἄρ’ ἐβλάστησαν ἐπιχθόνιοι κακότητες,
δαίμονες ἀνδροφόνοιο κακοῦ βασιλῆος ὀπηδοί,
ἀδρανέα, σκιόεντα, δυσαντέα φάσματα νυκτός,
ψεῦσταί θ’ ὑβρισταί τε, διδάσκαλοι ἀμπλακιάων,
πλάγκται, ζωροπόται, φιλομειδέες, ἐγρεσίκωμοι,
χρησμολόγοι, λοξοί, φιλοδήριες, αἱματόεντες,
Ταρτάρεοι, μυχόεντες, ἀναιδέες, ἀρχιγόητες,
ἐρχόμενοι καλέουσιν, ἀπεχθαίρουσι δ’ ἄγοντες·
νύξ, φάος, ὥς κεν ἕλωσιν, ἢ ἀμφαδὸν ἢ λοχόωντες.
(Gregory of Nazianzus, Poëmata Arcana 6.47-81)

The primary pure nature of Godhead is always unchangeable; there are never many realities in place of one. For what state is superior to Godhead into which it might change? Anything added would be a departure from absolute being. Second come the great servants of the highest light, as close to the original good as the other is to the sun. We human beings are the third rank, the air. The nature of God is changeless in relation to all. Angelic nature is hard to change towards evil, whereas we who occupy third place are easily susceptible to change, in as much as our distance from God brings us close to evil. Thus it was that first of all Lucifer, raised on high (for he aspired to the royal honour of the mighty God, though already granted outstanding glory), lost his radiant splendour and fell to dishonour in this world, becoming total darkness, rather than God. Although of light composition, he yet slipped to this lower earth, from where he displays hatred against the wise and, fired by anger at his own ruin, tries to turn all others from the path which leads to heaven. He has no wish that the beings fashioned by God should approach the place from which he fell. He conceived a desire to share with mortals the darkness of his sin. Therefore, the envious one cast out of paradise also the beings who sought glory equal to God’s.
Thus did Lucifer, originally exalted, descend from the vault of heaven. But he did not slip alone when his pride ruined him. In his crash he brought down the many companions he had schooled in evil (like some wicked man detaching an army from allegiance to the Emperor), through envy of the godly host which serves the God who rules on high, possessed by desire to lord it over a great number of evil beings. This is the origin of the evils which sprang up on this earth, demons, associates of the evil king who slays humanity, feeble, shadowy phantom shapes of the night, portending evil, liars, insolent wretches, teachers of error, deceivers, hard drinkers, lovers of foolish laughter, rousers of revelry, soothsayers, dealers in ambiguity, contentious, murderous, hellish beings skulking in dark corners, shameless, sorcerers, coming on summons, yet full of hatred for those they lead off. They take the forms of darkness or light at will, acting openly or lying in wait. (tr. Donald A. Sykes)