Exoikizomai

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Καὶ ἐὰν μὲν ἐκποιῇ πενητεύουσι <δεῖ> μένειν ἐν τῷ βίῳ, εἰ δὲ μή, ῥᾳδίως ἀπαλλάττεσθαι ὥσπερ ἐκ πανηγύρεως. καθάπερ καὶ ἐξ οἰκίας, φησὶν ὁ Βίων, ἐξοικιζόμεθα, ὅταν τὸ ἐνοίκιον ὁ μισθώσας οὐ κομιζόμενος τὴν θύραν ἀφέλῃ, τὸν κέραμον ἀφέλῃ, τὸ φρέαρ ἐγκλείσῃ, οὕτω, φησί, καὶ ἐκ τοῦ σωματίου ἐξοικίζομαι,  ὅταν ἡ μισθώσασα φύσις τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀφαιρῆται τὰ ὦτα τὰς χεῖρας τοὺς πόδας· οὐχ ὑπομένω, ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ ἐκ συμποσίου ἀπαλλάττομαι οὐθὲν δυσχεραίνων, οὕτω καὶ ἐκ τοῦ βίου, ὅταν ὥρα ᾖ, “ἔμβα πορθμίδος ἔρυμα.”
(Teles, Peri Autarkeias p. 15-16 Hense)

And if it is possible, the poor should remain in life, but otherwise they should depart readily, as if from a festival. “Just as we are ejected from our house,” says Bion, “when the landlord, because he has not received his rent, takes away the door, takes away the pottery, stops up the well, in the same way,” he says, “am I being ejected from this poor body when Nature, the landlady, takes away my eyes, my ears, my hands, my feet. I am not remaining, but as if leaving a banquet and not at all displeased, so also I leave life; when the hour comes, ‘step on board the ship.'” (tr. Edward N. O’Neil)

 

Ēlenchthē

antoon van dyck, de heilige ambrosius verhindert keizer theodosius de kathedraal van milaan te betreden, 1619-20
Anthony van Dyck, Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius from Milan Cathedral (1619-20)

Τοῦ δὲ Γρατιανοῦ τελευτήσαντος κατελείφθη βασιλεὺς αὐτοκράτωρ τῶν ἑσπερίων ὁ νέος Οὐαλεντινιανός, μήπω δὲ πρόσηβος γεγονώς. ὃς ὑποφθαρεὶς παρὰ τῆς μητρὸς Ἰουστίνης ἀρειανιζούσης τῷ τῶν ἀρειανῶν συνέθετο δόγματι καὶ τοῖς ὀρθοδόξοις ἀντέκειτο. ἐπαναστάντος οὖν αὐτῶ τοῦ Μαξίμου καὶ τυραννίδι ἐπιχειρήσαντος καὶ ἐν μάχαις ὑπερτερήσαντος, ἔγραψε πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Θεοδόσιον τὰ συμβάντα, συμμαχίαν αἰτούμενος. κἀκεῖνος μὴ δεῖν θαυμάζειν ἀντέγραψεν εἰ ὁ δοῦλος ὑπερτερεῖ δεσπότου κατεξαναστὰς τοῦ τὸν οἰκεῖον ἀθετοῦντος δεσπότην καὶ κτίσμα καὶ δοῦλον καλοῦντος τὸν κτίστην, καὶ τῷ πατρὶ ὁμοούσιον καὶ ὁμότιμον. ἀπελθὼν δὲ εἰς συμμαχίαν αὐτοῦ τόν τε Μάξιμον συλλαβὼν ἀνεῖλε καὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν Ἀνδραγάθιον, ὃς ἐδολοφόνησε τὸν Γρατιανόν. εἶτ’ αὖθις Εὐγένιος ἐπανέστη κατὰ τοῦ νέου Οὐαλεντινιανοῦ καὶ τυραννίδι ἐπέθετο. φοβηθεὶς οὖν Οὐαλεντινιανὸς ἀγχόνῃ τοῦ βίου ἑαυτὸν ὑπεξήγαγε. καὶ μαθὼν τὴν Εὐγενίου τυραννίδα Θεοδόσιος ἐξεστράτευσε κατ’ αὐτοῦ. καὶ εἰς Θεσσαλονίκην ἐλθὼν μετὰ τοῦ στρατεύματος, ἐκεῖνος μὲν ὑβρίσθη ὑπὸ τῶν Θεσσαλονικέων, ὁ δὲ ἔπαρχος ἐφονεύθη, στασιάσαντος τοῦ δήμου δι’ αἰτίας τινάς. τότε μὲν οὖν ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ λαοῦ κινήσει ἔδοξεν ἀνεξικακῆσαι ὁ βασιλεύς· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἱππικὸν ἀγῶνα ἐκήρυξε, καὶ τοῦ λαοῦ ἀθροισθέντος ἐπὶ τὸ θέατρον περιέστησεν αὐτοῖς τὰ στρατεύματα, καὶ κατετόξευσαν τὸν δῆμον καὶ κατηκόντισαν, ὥστε θανεῖν ἐξ αὐτῶν ἄχρι τῶν πεντεκαίδεκα χιλιάδων. καὶ οὕτως ἐκπλήσας ὁ Θεοδόσιος τὸν θυμόν, ἐκεῖθεν ἀπάρας εἰς τὴν πόλιν τῶν Μεδιολάνων ἀφίκετο. ὅπου καὶ ἠλέγχθη παρὰ τοῦ μεγάλου Ἀμβροσίου καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν οὐ συγκεχώρητο. καὶ οὐ πρότερον ἐφῆκεν αὐτῷ τὴν εἰς τὸ θεῖον θέμενος εἴσοδον, εἰ μὴ νόμον ἔθετο τὰς ψήφους τὰς φονικὰς μὴ πρότερον ἐκβιβάζεσθαι, πρὶν ἂν παρέλθοιεν μετὰ τὴν ψῆφον ἡμέραι τριάκοντα. τοῦτο δ’ ἐποίησε διὰ τὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ὀξύρροπον εἰς θυμόν, ἔνα διὰ τῶν τριάκοντα ἡμερῶν τοῦ θυμοῦ καταστορεννυμένου ἀπαθῶς ἐπισκέπτηται τἀς ψήφους καὶ τὰς μὲν ἐννόμους κυροῖ, τῶν δὲ δι’ ὀργὴν ἴσως ἐψηφισμένων ἀργίαν καταψηφίζηται. τῷ δὲ τυράννῳ Εὐγενίῳ συμμίξας ἐν ταῖς Γαλλίαις ὁ Θεοδόσιος νικᾷ αὐτὸν καὶ συλλαμβάνει καὶ ἀναιρεῖ.
(Joannes Zonaras, Epit. Hist. 13.18)

After Gratian had died, there remained as sovereign emperor of the West the young Valentinian, who was not yet an adolescent. Because his Arianizing mother Justina had corrupted him, he was in agreement with the dogma of the Arians and opposed the orthodox. Therefore, after Maximus had rebelled against him and made an attempt at usurpation, and had prevailed in battles, he, seeking a military alliance, wrote the sovereign Theodosius what had happened. The latter wrote back to him that there was no need for amazement if a slave rebelled and prevailed over a master when the latter was denying his own Master, calling the Creator a creation, a slave, and the same substance and same rank as the Father. After he had departed to assist him, he captured and killed Maximus and the general Andragathius, who had deceitfully murdered Gratian. Then, in turn, Eugenius rebelled against the young Valentinian and made an attempt at usurpation. Therefore, Valentinian, seized with fear, betook himself from life by hanging. Learning of Eugenius’ usurpation, Theodosius marched out against him. After he had reached Thessalonica with his army, he was insulted by the Thessalonicans and the prefect was murdered, the populace having rioted as a result of certain grievances. Now the sovereign then seemed to exhibit forbearance toward the populace’s action. But subsequently he announced an equestrian contest and, when the populace had gathered in the theater, the army surrounded them and with arrows and javelins shot the populace down, with the result that of them almost 15,000 died. After he had sated his anger in this fashion, Theodosius departed and went to the city of Mediolanum. There he was censured by Ambrose the Great and not allowed to enter the church. He did not permit him entrance to the divine precinct unless he enacted a law that capital sentences not be enforced until thirty days should elapse after the sentence. This he did on account of the sovereign’s predisposition toward anger, in order that, his anger being spread through the thirty days, he re-examine his sentences dispassionately and confirm the lawful but annul those that had perhaps been promulgated through rage. After he had engaged the usurper Eugenius in battle in Gaul, Theodosius defeated, captured, and killed him. (tr. Thomas N. Banchich & Eugene N. Lane)

Elementa

AA379227: Archaeology

This is part 3 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 2 is here.

‘Nunc docet ingentes saltu me iungere fossas,
nunc caput aërii scandentem prendere montis,
quo fugitur per plana gradu, simulacraque pugnae
excipere immissos curvato umbone molares
ardentesque intrare casas peditemque volantes
sistere quadriiugos. memini, rapidissimus ibat
imbribus assiduis pastus nivibusque solutis
Sperchios vivasque trabes et saxa ferebat,
cum me ille immissum, qua saevior impetus undae,
stare iubet contra tumidosque repellere fluctus,
quos vix ipse gradu totiens obstante tulisset.
stabam equidem, sed me referebat concitus amnis
et latae caligo fugae; ferus ille minari
desuper incumbens verbisque urgere pudorem.
nec nisi iussus abi: sic me sublimis agebat
gloria, nec duri tanto sub teste labores.
nam procul Oebalios in nubila condere discos
et liquidam nodare palen et spargere caestus,
ludus erat requiesque mihi; nec maior in istis
sudor, Apollineo quam fila sonantia plectro
cum quaterem priscosque virum mirarer honores.
quin etiam sucos atque auxiliantia morbis
gramina, quo nimius staret medicamine sanguis,
quid faciat somnos, quid hiantia vulnera claudat,
quae ferro cohibenda lues, quae cederet herbis,
edocuit monitusque sacrae sub pectore fixit
iustitiae, qua Peliacis dare iura verenda
gentibus atque suos solitus pacare biformes.
hactenus annorum, comites, elementa meorum
et memini et meminisse iuvat: scit cetera mater.’
(Statius, Ach. 138-167)

‘Anon he teaches me to span great ditches in a jump, to climb and grasp an airy mountain peak as if racing over the level; in mock battle to receive flying boulders on my curving shield boss, to enter burning huts and stop hurtling chariots on foot. I remember when Sperchios was flowing his fastest, fed on continual rains and melted snow, carrying live trees and rocks; Chiron would tell me to get in where the torrent’s current was fiercest and stand against it, repelling the swollen waves that he himself would hardly have withstood with so many feet. I stood, but the angry river and the mist of his broad rush took me back. He bore down on me with savage threats and scolded to shame me. I did not leave till ordered, so high glory urged me, and before so mighty a witness labours were light. For to hide Oebalian quoits far up in the sky and knot holds in the slippery wrestling match and scatter boxing gloves were my play and relaxation, and toil therein no greater than when I plucked the sounding strings with Apollo’s quill and marvelled at the glories of the men of old. He even taught me of juices and grasses to aid in sickness, of medicine to stanch fast-flowing blood, what brings sleep, what closes gaping wounds, what plague should be checked by steel, what yields to herbs; and he fixed in my mind the precepts of sacred justice, whereby he used to give laws for Pelion’s tribes to reverence and pacify his own twiforms. So far, comrades, I remember the training of my early years and joy in the memory. My mother knows the rest.’ (tr. David Roy Shackleton-Bailey)

Ensiferos

Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Chiron leert Achilles boogschieten, 1776
Giovanni Battista Cipriani, Chiron instructing Achilles in the bow (1776)

This is part 2 of 3. Part 1 is here. Part 3 is here.

‘Vix mihi bissenos annorum torserat orbes
vita rudis, volucris cum iam praevertere cervos
et Lapithas cogebat equos praemissaque cursu
tela sequi; saepe ipse gradu me praepete Chiron,
dum velox aetas, campis admissus agebat
omnibus, exhaustumque vago per gramina passu
laudabat gaudens atque in sua terga levabat.
saepe etiam primo fluvii torpore iubebar
ire supra glaciemque levi non frangere planta.
hoc puerile decus. quid nunc tibi proelia dicam
silvarum et saevo vacuos iam murmure saltus?
numquam ille imbelles Ossaea per avia dammas
sectari aut timidas passus me cuspide lyncas
sternere, sed tristes turbare cubilibus ursos
fulmineosque sues, et sicubi maxima tigris
aut seducta iugis fetae spelunca leaenae.
ipse sedens vasto facta exspectabat in antro,
si sparsus nigro remearem sanguine; nec me
ante nisi inspectis admisit ad oscula telis.
iamque et ad ensiferos vicina pube tumultus
aptabar, nec me ulla feri Mavortis imago
praeteriit. didici, quo Paeones arma rotatu,
quo Macetae sua gaesa citent, quo turbine contum
Sauromates falcemque Getes arcumque Gelonus
tenderet et flexae Balearicus actor habenae
quo suspensa trahens libraret vulnera tortu
inclusumque suo distingueret aëra gyro.
vix memorem cunctos, etsi bene gessimus, actus.’
(Statius, Ach. 110-137)

‘Scarce had my raw life turned twice six years when he had me run faster than the swift stags and Lapith horses and chase the darts I flung. Often would Chiron himself, while his age ran swift, pursue me at gallop all over the plains in headlong career, and when I was exhausted in my wanderings through the meads he would joyfully praise me and hoist me onto his back. Often too at the first freezing of the river he would bid me walk over it nor break the ice with lightsome foot. Such was my boyish glory. Why tell you of forest fights and glens now empty of savage growls? He would never let me chase unwarlike deer through Ossa’s wilds or lay timid lynxes low with my spear; I must rouse grim bears from their dens and boars like thunderbolts or mayhap a mighty tigress’ lair or a hidden cavern on the mountain that housed a lioness and her cubs. Himself would sit in his vast cave and wait for my exploits: would I return splashed with black blood? Nor did he admit me to his kiss until he had inspected my weapons. And now I was making ready for affrays of the sword with my neighbour folk; no aspect of fierce Mavors passed me by. I learned how the Paeonians whirl their arms, how the Macetae speed their javelins, with what a spin the Sarmatian plies his stake, the Gete his falchion, the Gelonian his bow, how the Balearic driver of the twisted sling swings his missile aloft with balanced pull, marking out the air he comprises in its circle. I could scarce recall all I did, though I did it well.’ (tr. David Roy Shackleton-Bailey)

Invia

James Barry, The education of Achilles, ca. 1772
James Barry, The education of Achilles (ca. 1772)

This is part 1 of 3. Part 2 is here. Part 3 is here.

Excipit Oenides: “Quin, o dignissima caeli
progenies, ritusque tuos elementaque primae
indolis et, valida mox accedente iuventa,
quae solitus laudum tibi semina pandere Chiron
virtutisque aditus, quas membra augere per artes,
quas animum, sociis multumque faventibus edis?
sit pretium longas penitus quaesisse per undas
Scyron et his primum me arma ostendisse lacertis.”
quem pigeat sua facta loqui? tamen ille modeste
incohat, ambiguus paulum propiorque coacto:
“dicor et in teneris et adhuc reptantibus annis,
Thessalus ut rigido senior me monte recepit,
non ullos ex more cibos hausisse nec almis
uberibus satiasse famem, sed spissa leonum
viscera semianimisque lupae traxisse medullas.
haec mihi prima Ceres, haec laeti munera Bacchi,
sic dabat ille pater. mox ire per invia secum
lustra gradu maiore trahens visisque docebat
adridere feris nec fracta ruentibus undis
saxa nec ad vastae trepidare silentia silvae.
iam tunc arma manu, iam tunc cervice pharetrae,
et ferri properatus amor durataque multo
sole geluque cutis; tenero nec fluxa cubili
membra, sed ingenti saxum commune magistro.”
(Statius, Ach. 86-109)

Oeneus’ son takes over: ‘Nay, most worthy scion of heaven, why not tell your right favouring comrades of your ways, the rudiments of earliest anture and what Chrion showed you as presently strong manhood came on; the seeds of glory, the path to valour, the arts to make your body grow and your mind. Let it be worth while that I have sought Scyros over the length of waves and been the first to show weapons to these arms of yours.’
Whom would it irk to tell of his own deeds? Yet he begins modestly, a little hesitant, rather as if constrained: ‘They say that in my tender years, still crawling, when the old man of Thessaly received me on his stark mountain, I took no ordinary food nor satisfied hunger from nurturing breasts, but tore at the tough flesh of lions and offal of a she-wolf still half alive. This was my first bread, this the gift of happy Bacchus*, thus that father of mine used to feed me. Presently he taught me to go with him through the trackless wilderness, drawing me on with his wider stride, and to laugh when I saw wild beasts and not to fear rocks shattered by rushing torrents and the silences of the vast forest. Even then arms were in my hand, even then a quiver at my neck, precocious love of steel, skin hardened by sun and frost in plenty, limbs not loosened by soft bedding, but a rock shared with my huge master.’

* But nothing has been said about what Achilles had to drink – unless a line has fallen out after 100.

(tr. David Roy Shackleton-Bailey, with his note)

Luditur

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Scholae dictae sunt, non ab otio ac vacatione omni, sed quod, ceteris rebus omissis, vacare liberalibus studiis pueri debent; ut etiam ludi appellantur, in quibus minime luditur, ne tristi aliquo nomine fug<iunt pueri suo fungi mu>nere.
(Festus, De Verborum Significatu p. 470 Lindsay)

Schools are called scholae (lit. spare time), not because one enjoys leisure or freedom from all work there, but because children should set all else aside and invest their ‘free time’ in the liberal studies. Likewise they are called ludi (lit. games), even though there’s no ‘playing’ (ludere) whatsoever in them, lest a less cheerful name would discourage children from doing their duty. (tr. David Bauwens)

Militem: Aelius a mollitia κατὰ ἀντίφρασιν dictum putat, eo, quod nihil molle, sed potius asperum quid gerat; sic ludum dicimus, in quo minime luditur.
(Paulus Diaconus, Epitoma Festi p. 109 Lindsay)

Soldier: Aelius thinks the world for soldier (miles) is derived by antiphrasis from mollitia (weakness), because they do nothing that is weak, on the contrary: they do what is rough. Likewise we say ludus (school), even though there’s no ‘playing’ (ludere) there. (tr. David Bauwens)

Lucus quia umbra opacus parum luceat et ludus quia sit longissime a lusu et Ditis quia minime dives.
(Aelius Stilo fr. 59 Funaioli)

A grove is called lucus because on account of all the shadows there’s hardly any light (lux) there; a school is called ludus because it’s very far from any kind of play (lusus); and we call Pluto Dis or Ditis because he’s hardly rich (dives). (tr. David Bauwens)

Voadicia

boudicca_watercolor-57e8172d3df78c690f26e8af

Sed Voadicia cum primis animos incedebat, questa iniurias quas a Romanis accepisset, et quia ipsa ante alios acerrimo erat in hostes odio, igitur ea duce (non enim in imperiis sexum discernebant) factum est ut magna populi pars, commotis etiam ad alienationem officii Trinobantibus, repente a Romanis defecerit, armaque in suos praecipitanter sumpserit. primo itaque insulanorum motu veterani perculsi templum quoddam occuparunt, ubi omnes ad unum interfecti sunt. inde legio nova, quae Peti Cerealis legati ductu iis subsidio venerat, fusa caesaque est. Catus Decianus Britanniae procurator media trepidatione delapsus in Galliam transiit. pervagatus inde est furor Britannorum usque Verulamium municipium per Romanorum civium ac sociorum capita, occisaque dicuntur ex multitudine imbelli ad septuaginta hominum milia. nec multo post Paulinus adfuit Londinumque perrexit, ambiguus an illam sedem bello deligeret. qui tamen inde degressus locum coepit arctis faucibus, et a tergo silva clausum ita ut sine insidiarum metu esset, certo sciens non posse nisi a fronte invadi, qui secum circiter armatorum milia decem habebat, quibus fretus cum multitudine hostium immensa conflixit. Britanni longe maiore bellatorum numero praestabant, qui idcirco tam certa spe victoriae pugnam pugnare coeperunt ut mulieres curribus stantes sint spectaculo admotae. certatum est loco angusto, et ob id Romanorum paucitati perutili, fuitque pugna ab initio atrox. postremo Britanni, qui sese proeliando impediebant, propter loci angustiam impetum hostium minime sustinentes fusi, ac multa caede passim disiecti sunt. triginta fere Britannorum milia interfecta sunt. Voadicia dux belli ne in hostium potestate venirent vitam veneno sibi ademit.
(Polydore Vergil, Angl. Hist. 2.6)

But Boadicia in particular set their minds ablaze, complaining of the injuries she had received at the Romans’ hands, and because she surpassed everyone else in her hated of the enemy, therefore under generalship (forin choosing leaders they do not discriminate between the sexes) it came about that a great part of the people — even the Trinobantes were stirred to mutiny — suddenly revolted against the Romans and hastily snatched up arms against them. And so at their first uprising the amazed veterans occupied a certain temple, where they were cut down to a man. Then the Ninth Legion, which had come to their rescue under the command of Petus Cerealis, was routed and slaughtered. Amidst this panic, Catus Decianus, the procurator of Britain, fled to Gaul. Then the Britons’ fury ranged as far as the municipality of Verulamium, running through the persons of the Romans and their allies, and up to 70,000 souls are said to have been massacred out of that helpless multitude. Not long thereafter Paulinus was at hand and marched towards London, unsure whether he should choose it as his seat for the war. Then, abandoning it, he selected a place protected by narrow passes, assured he was free from frontal assault. He had with him about 10,000 soldiers, and, relying on them, joined battle with an immense horde of enemies. The Britons were far greater in number, and hence were so sure of victory that they began to fight the battle in such a way that women standing in chariots were driven up to view the spectacle. They fought in a narrow space, useful for the Romans in their small numbers, and it was a savage battle from the beginning. Finally the Britons, who obstructed each other as they fought, could not withstand the Roman assault because of the restricted space, and were scattered with much loss of life. About 30,000 Britons were killed. Their commander Boadicia killed herself by poison lest she fall into enemy hands. (tr. Dana F. Sutton)