Arduum

Cicerone

At quae stirpes sunt aegritudinis, quam multae, quam amarae! quae ipso trunco everso omnes eligendae sunt et, si necesse erit, singulis disputationibus. superest enim nobis hoc, cuicuimodi est, otium. Sed ratio una omnium est aegritudinum, plura nomina. nam et invidere aegritudinis est et aemulari et obtrectare et misereri et angi, lugere, maerere, aerumna adfici, lamentari, sollicitari, dolere, in molestia esse, adflictari, desperare. haec omnia definiunt Stoici, eaque verba quae dixi singularum rerum sunt, non, ut videntur, easdem res significant, sed aliquid differunt; quod alio loco fortasse tractabimus. haec sunt illae fibrae stirpium, quas initio dixi, persequendae et omnes eligendae, ne umquam ulla possit existere. magnum opus et difficile, quis negat? quid autem praeclarurn non idem arduum? Sed tamen id se effecturam philosophia profitetur, nos modo curationem eius recipiamus. verum haec quidem hactenus, cetera, quotienscumque voletis, et hoc loco et aliis parata vobis erunt.
(Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 3.83-84)

Yet how numerous are the roots of distress, and how bitter they are! The trunk itself may have been cast down, and still they must be pulled out, every one, by single disputations if need be. I have more than enough free time to do so—if “free time” it can be called. For although all forms of distress have the same explanation, they have many different names. Envy is a form of distress, and so are rivalry, jealousy, pity, anxiety, grief, sorrow, weariness, mourning, worry, anguish, sadness, affliction, and despair. The Stoics have definitions for all of these. For although it may appear that the terms I have listed all mean the same, they in fact refer to slightly different things, as I may perhaps explain later on. These are those root-fibers I mentioned at the start, the ones which must all be found and pulled out, so that none of them can ever arise again. No one would deny that this is a heavy and difficult task. Every great work is arduous, is it not? Yet philosophy promises that she will accomplish it, if only we take her for our physician. But this is enough for now. The rest I am ready to tell you, as many times as you like, both here and elsewhere. (tr. Margaret Graver)

Itur

Ascanius

Aetheria tum forte plaga crinitus Apollo
desuper Ausonias acies urbemque videbat
nube sedens, atque his victorem adfatur Iülum:
‘macte nova virtute, puer, sic itur ad astra,
dis genite et geniture deos. iure omnia bella
gente sub Assaraci fato ventura resident,
nec te Troia capit.’ simul haec effatus ab alto
aethere se mittit, spirantes dimovet auras
Ascaniumque petit; formam tum vertitur oris
antiquum in Buten. hic Dardanio Anchisae
armiger ante fuit fidusque ad limina custos;
tum comitem Ascanio pater addidit. ibat Apollo
omnia longaevo similis vocemque coloremque
et crines albos et saeva sonoribus arma,
atque his ardentem dictis adfatur Iülum:
‘sit satis, Aenide, telis impune Numanum
oppetiisse tuis. primam hanc tibi magnus Apollo
concedit laudem et paribus non invidet armis;
cetera parce, puer, bello.’ sic orsus Apollo
mortales medio aspectus sermone reliquit
et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.
agnovere deum proceres divinaque tela
Dardanidae pharetramque fuga sensere sonantem.
ergo avidum pugnae dictis ac numine Phoebi
Ascanium prohibent, ipsi in certamina rursus
succedunt animasque in aperta pericula mittunt.
(Vergil, Aen. 9.638-663)

At that moment Apollo, the youthful god, whose hair is never
cut, chanced to be seated on a cloud, looking down from the
expanse of heaven on the armies and cities of Italy, and he
addressed these words to the victorious Iulus: ‘You have become
a man, young Iulus, and we salute you! This is the way that
leads to the stars. You are born of the gods and will live to be
the father of gods. Justice demands that all the wars that Fate
will bring will come to an end under the offspring of Assaracus.
Troy is not large enough for you.’ At these words he plunged
down from the heights of heaven, parting the breathing winds,
and made for Ascanius, taking on the features of old Butes.
Butes had once been armour-bearer to the Dardan Anchises and
the trusted guard of his door, and Aeneas had then appointed
him as companion to his son Ascanius. This was the guise in
which Apollo came, the old man Butes to the life—voice,
colouring, white hair, weapons grimly clanking—and these were
the words he spoke to Iulus in the flush of his victory: ‘Let that
be enough, son of Aeneas. Numanus has fallen to your arms
and you are unhurt. Great Apollo has granted you this first taste
of glory and does not grudge you arrows as sure as his own.
You must ask for no more, my boy, in this war.’ So began
Apollo, but while speaking, he left the sight of men, fading
from their eyes into the insubstantial air. The Trojan leaders
recognized the god. They knew his divine arrows and the quiver
that sounded as he flew. So, although Ascanius was thirsting for
battle, they held him back, urging upon him the words of
Phoebus Apollo and the will of the god. But they themselves
went back into battle and put their lives into naked danger.
(tr. David West)

Supera

herculesfurens

[LYCVS. MEGARA]

LYC. Animosne mersus inferis coniunx facit?
MEG. inferna tetigit, posset ut supera assequi.
LYC. telluris illum pondus immensae premit.
MEG. nullo premetur onere, qui caelum tulit.
LYC. cogere.
MEG. cogi qui potest nescit mori.
LYC. effare thalamis quod novis potius parem
regale munus.
MEG. aut tuam mortem aut meam.
LYC. moriere demens.
MEG. coniugi occurram meo.
LYC. sceptrone nostro potior est famulus tibi?
MEG. quot iste famulus tradidit reges neci!
LYC. cur ergo regi servit et patitur iugum?
MEG. imperia dura tolle: quid virtus erit?
LYC. obici feris monstrisque virtutem putas?
MEG. virtutis est domare quae cuncti pavent.
LYC. tenebrae loquentem magna Tartareae premunt.
MEG. non est ad astra mollis e terris via.
(Seneca Minor, Herc. Fur. 422-437)

[LYCVS. MEGARA]

LYC. You take courage from a husband sunk in the underworld?
MEG. He visited the underworld to gain the upper world.
LYC. He is crushed by the weight of the vast earth.
MEG. No burden will crush the one who carried the heavens.
LYC. You will be forced.
MEG. One who can be forced does not know how to die.
LYC. Say what kingly gift I should prepare instead for our new marriage.
MEG. Either your death or mine.
LYC. You will die, madwoman.
MEG. Then I shall find my husband.
LYC. And is a slave more to you than my sceptered power?
MEG. How many kings that “slave” has delivered to death!
LYC. Then why does he serve a king and endure subjection?
MEG. Take away harsh commands: what will valour be?
LYC. You think being thrown to beasts and monsters is valour?
MEG. Valour consists of subduing what everyone fears.
LYC. The darkness of Tartarus covers that great boaster.
MEG. The path from earth to the stars is not a smooth one.
(tr. John G. Fitch)

Filius

Waldburg-Gebetbuch_158

Vellem iam quidem, et forte possem, illum esse verissime Patrem; hoc vero verissime esse Filium concludere. sed nec hoc negligendum existimo, an Patris et Filii, et an matris et filiae magis illis apta sit appellatio, cum in eis nulla sit sexus discretio. nam si idcirco convenienter est ille Pater, et proles eius Filius, quia uterque est Spiritus: cur non pari ratione alteri convenit esse matrem. alteri filiam, quia uterque est veritas et sapientia? an quia in his naturis, quae sexus habent differentiam, melioris sexus est patrem esse vel filium; minoris vero, matrem vel filiam? et hoc quidem naturaliter in pluribus; in quibusdam vero econtrario, ut in quibusdam avium generibus, in quibus femineus sexus semper maior et validior est; masculinus vero minor et infirmior. aut certe idcirco magis convenit summo Spiritui dici Patrem quam matrem, quia prima et principalis causa prolis semper est in patre. nam si maternam causam quolibet modo semper paterna praecedit, nimis est incongruum ut illi parenti adaptetur nomen matris, cui ad gignendam prolem nulla alia causa aut sociatur, aut praecedit. verissimum est igitur summum Spiritum Patrem esse prolis suae. quod si filius semper similior est patri quam filia; nihil autem similius est alteri quam summo Patri proles sua; verissimum est hanc prolem non esse filiam, sed Filium. sicut igitur proprium est illius verissime gignere, istius vero gigni, sic proprium est illius esse verissimum gignitorem, istius vero verissimum esse genitum. et sicut alter est verissimus parens, alter verissima proles; sic alter est verissimus Pater, alter verissimus Filius.
(Anselm of Canterbury, Monologion 42)

I would now like to infer, if I can, that the Supreme Spirit most truly is father and that the Word most truly is son. Yet, I think I ought not to by-pass [the following question]: is the appellation “father and son” or the appellation “mother and daughter” more befitting for them?, for there is no sexual distinction in the Supreme Spirit and the Word. For if the Supreme Spirit is suitably [called] father and its offspring suitably [called] son because each is spirit, then why is it not suitable, by parity of reasoning, for the one to be [called] mother and the other to be [called] daughter because each is truth and wisdom?* Is it [preferable to call them father and son] because among those natures which have a difference of sex it is characteristic of the better sex to be father or son and of the inferior sex to be mother or daughter? Now, although this is by nature the case for many [beings], for others the reverse holds true. For example, in some species of birds the female sex is always larger and stronger, the male sex smaller and weaker. But, surely, the Supreme Spirit is more suitably called father than mother because the first and principal cause of offspring is always in the father. For if the paternal [cause] always in some way precedes the maternal cause, then it is exceedingly inappropriate for the name “mother” to be applied to that parent whom no other cause either joins or precedes for the begetting of offspring. Therefore, it is most true that the Supreme Spirit is father of its own offspring. But if a son is always more like a father than is a daughter, and if no one thing is more like another than this offspring is like the Supreme Father, it is most true that this offspring is a son, not a daughter. Therefore, just as this Spirit has the distinguishing property of most truly begetting and this offspring of most truly being begotten, so the former has the distinguishing property of being the most true begetting one and the latter of being the most true begotten one. And just as the one is the most true parent and the other the most true offspring, so the one is the most true father and the other the most true son.

* “Spirit” is in Latin a masculine noun (“spiritus”); “truth” and “wisdom” are feminine nouns (“veritas,” “sapientia”).

(tr. Jasper Hopkins and Herbert Richardson, with their note)

Auditiones

Munt Tiberius (31 nC) - Damnatio memoriae van Sejanus

Haec vulgo iactata super id, quod nullo auctore certo firmantur, prompte refutaveris. quis enim mediocri prudentia, nedum Tiberius tantis rebus exercitus, inaudito filio exitium offerret, idque sua manu et nullo ad paenitendum regressu? quin potius ministrum veneni excruciaret, auctorem exquireret, insita denique etiam in extraneos cunctatione et mora adversum unicum et nullius ante flagitii compertum uteretur? sed quia Seianus facinorum omnium repertor habebatur, ex nimia caritate in eum Caesaris et ceterorum in utrumque odio quamvis fabulosa et immania credebantur, atrociore semper fama erga dominantium exitus. ordo alioqui sceleris per Apicatam Seiani proditus, tormentis Eudemi ac Lygdi patefactus est, neque quisquam scriptor tam infensus extitit, ut Tiberio obiectaret, cum omnia alia conquirerent intenderentque. mihi tradendi arguendique rumoris causa fuit ut claro sub exemplo falsas auditiones depellerem peteremque ab iis quorum in manus cura nostra venerit, ne divulgata atque incredibilia avide accepta veris neque in miraculum corruptis antehabeant.
(Tacitus, Ann. 4.11)

This was bandied about in public, but, beyond the fact that it is affirmed in no
reliable author, you can readily refute it. What man of average prudence—still
less Tiberius, practiced as he was in great affairs—would have offered extermination to a son unheard, and that too with his own hand and no recourse for repentance? Would he not rather have racked the server of the poison, searched out
its initiator, and finally, given the innate hesitancy and delay with which he
treated even outsiders, treated his one and only, who had been discovered in no
outrage, with the same? Yet, because Sejanus was considered the deviser of every
act, it was owing to Caesar’s excessive affection for him and to everyone else’s
hatred of them both that even the most monstrous fantasies were believed—
report being always more frightful in relation to one’s departed masters. Besides,
the stages of the crime were betrayed by Sejanus’ Apicata and disclosed by the
torturing of Eudemus and Lygdus; nor did any writer at all prove so hostile that
he cast this imputation at Tiberius, though they raked up and aimed everything
else. In my case the reason for transmitting and criticizing the rumor was that on
the basis of a resounding example I might dispel false hearsay and ask of those
into whose hands my work comes that they should not be hungry to accept well
publicized incredibilities nor prefer them to what is genuine and uncorrupted
by the miraculous. (tr. Anthony John Woodman)

Epakouein

dionysus-wine

Ὦναξ, ᾧ δαμάλης Ἔρως
καὶ Νύμφαι κυανώπιδες
πορφυρῆ τ’ Ἀφροδίτη
συμπαίζουσιν, ἐπιστρέφεαι
δ’ ὑψηλὰς ὀρέων κορυφάς·
γουνοῦμαί σε, σὺ δ’ εὐμενὴς
ἔλθ’ ἡμίν, κεχαρισμένης
δ’ εὐχωλῆς ἐπακούειν·
Κλεοβούλῳ δ’ ἀγαθὸς γένεο
σύμβουλος, τὸν ἐμόν γ’ ἔρω-
τ’, ὦ Δεόνυσε, δέχεσθαι.
(Anacreon, fr. 357)

Lord, with whom Eros the subduer
And the dark-eyed Nymphs
And rosy-skinned Aphrodite
Play, you roam about
The lofty mountain peaks.
I beseech you, please come to us
Well-disposed, and hear
Our prayer with favor.
Become a good advisor to Cleobulus,
That he accept my love,
O Dionysus.
(tr. Thomas K. Hubbard)

Nuntiate

oranjegeknaktfotojanwijten

Furi et Aureli, comites Catulli,
sive in extremos penetrabit Indos,
litus ut longe resonante Eoa
tunditur unda,

sive in Hyrcanos Arabasve molles,
seu Sagas sagittiferosve Parthos,
sive quae septemgeminus colorat
aequora Nilus,

sive trans altas gradietur Alpes,
Caesaris visens monimenta magni,
Gallicum Rhenum, horribiles vitro ulti-
mosque Britannos,

omnia haec, quaecumque feret voluntas
caelitum, temptare simul parati,
pauca nuntiate meae puellae
non bona dicta.

cum suis vivat valeatque moechis,
quos simul complexa tenet trecentos,
nullum amans vere, sed identidem omnium
ilia rumpens;

nec meum respectet, ut ante, amorem,
qui illius culpa cecidit velut prati
ultimi flos, praetereunte postquam
tactus aratro est.

(Catullus 11)

Catullus’ comrades, wherever he goes,
whether he reaches the Indians’ realm,
where the far-resounding eastern wave
pummels the shore,
visits Hyrcani, effeminate Arabs,
Sacae, or Parthians laden with arrows,
or the fields where the floods of the sevenfold Nile
deposit their colors,
or walks across the lofty Alps,
seeing the achievements of Caesar the Great,
the Gallic Rhine, the choppy main,
the faraway Britons,
ready for any adventure, whatever
the will of heaven’s inhabitants brings,
say a few words to my girl, a few
unfriendly words.
Let her live and rejoice with her band of adulterers,
embracing three hundred at once, though truly
loving none, and never fail
to rupture their groins,
but not rely on my love as before.
It died by the guilt of that girl, as a flower
falls at the edge of a meadow when touched
by a passing plough.
(tr. David Mulroy)