Plagas

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Verbera servos decent, non liberos. nobilibus pueris et maxim regibus maiorum laudes ac vituperia quam verbera commoditatem magis afferunt. illae ad honesta concitant, haec a turpitudine cohibent; in utrisque tamen adhibendus est modus, ne quid nimis sit. pueri namque immodicis celebrati laudationibus intumescunt, nimiis autem affecti iurgiis franguntur animoque deficiunt. at ex plagis odia surgunt, quae ad virilem aetatem usque perdurant. discenti autem nihil magis adversum est, quam praeceptores odisse, quos tu, si recte facere volueris, non minus amabis quam ipsa studia, et parentes esse, non quidem corporis sed mentis tuae iudicabis. multum haec pietas studio confert.
(Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, De Liberorum Educatione 10)

Blows are suitable for slaves, not free men. For noble and especially for royal boys, the praise and blame of their elders are more serviceable than their blows. The former incites them to virtuous deeds, the latter restrains them from disgraceful behavior; yet in each case, measure must be applied lest there be excess. For boys honored with unmeasured praise become arrogant, but visited with too much criticism they become broken and low-spirited. Indeed from blows arises a hatred which endures even to manhood, yet nothing is worse for a pupil than to hate his teachers. If you wish to act rightly, you should love them not less than your studies themselves, and you will consider them as the parents, not of your body, but of your mind. This devoted affection is a great aid to study. (tr. Craig W. Kallendorf)

Penētōn

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Tiberius Gracchus

Ἀλλ᾽ οὐδὲν ἐπέραινον· ὁ γὰρ Τιβέριος πρὸς καλὴν ὑπόθεσιν καὶ δικαίαν ἀγωνιζόμενος λόγῳ καὶ φαυλότερα κοσμῆσαι δυναμένῳ πράγματα δεινὸς ἦν καὶ ἄμαχος, ὁπότε τοῦ δήμου τῷ βήματι περικεχυμένου καταστὰς λέγοι περὶ τῶν πενήτων, ὡς τὰ μὲν θηρία τὰ τὴν Ἰταλίαν νεμόμενα καὶ φωλεὸν ἔχει καὶ κοιταῖόν ἐστιν αὐτῶν ἑκάστῳ καὶ καταδύσεις, τοῖς δὲ ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἰταλίας μαχομένοις καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσιν ἀέρος καὶ φωτός, ἄλλου δὲ οὐδενὸς μέτεστιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἄοικοι καὶ ἀνίδρυτοι μετὰ τέκνων πλανῶνται καὶ γυναικῶν, οἱ δὲ αὐτοκράτορες ψεύδονται τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐν ταῖς μάχαις παρακαλοῦντες ὑπὲρ τάφων καὶ ἱερῶν ἀμύνεσθαι τοὺς πολεμίους· οὐδενὶ γάρ ἐστιν οὐ βωμὸς πατρῷος, οὐκ ἠρίον προγονικὸν τῶν τοσούτων Ῥωμαίων, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὲρ ἀλλοτρίας τρυφῆς καὶ πλούτου πολεμοῦσι καὶ ἀποθνήσκουσι, κύριοι τῆς οἰκουμένης εἶναι λεγόμενοι, μίαν δὲ βῶλον ἰδίαν οὐκ ἔχοντες.
(Plutarchus, Tiberius Gracchus 9.4-5)

But they accomplished nothing; for Tiberius, striving to support a measure which was honourable and just with an eloquence that would have adorned even a meaner cause, was formidable and invincible, whenever, with the people crowding around the rostra, he took his stand there and pleaded for the poor. “The wild beasts that roam over Italy,” he would say, “have every one of them a cave or lair to lurk in; but the men who fight and die for Italy enjoy the common air and light, indeed, but nothing else; houseless and homeless they wander about with their wives and children. And it is with lying lips that their imperators exhort the soldiers in their battles to defend sepulchres and shrines from the enemy; for not a man of them has an hereditary altar, not one of all these many Romans an ancestral tomb, but they fight and die to support others in wealth and luxury, and though they are styled masters of the world, they have not a single clod of earth that is their own.” (tr. Bernadotte Perrin)